Normal length of fetal kidneys: sonographic study in 397 obstetric patients.

Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital Cornell University Medical College, Manhasset, NY 11030.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.9). 10/1991; 157(3):545-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study was done to measure normal lengths of fetal kidneys sonographically during pregnancy. Knowledge of these measurements may allow earlier diagnosis of a variety of abnormalities. The greatest length of each of 498 kidneys in 397 consecutive fetuses between 18 and 41 weeks gestation was measured on sonograms. Gestational ages were determined by last menstrual period and biometry; significant discrepancies led to case exclusion. Abnormal fetuses, twins, offspring of diabetic mothers, and fetuses with renal pelvic dilatation of 4 mm or greater were excluded to avoid any questionable measurements. The results show that mean lengths are greater and confidence intervals are wider than previously reported. Renal lengths are similar to those reported in premature and full-term neonates. Strong correlation exists between renal length and gestational age, determined by biparietal diameter, femoral length, and abdominal circumference, and an average of the three. No significant difference was found between right and left renal lengths in fetuses in whom both kidneys were imaged. Average renal lengths are significantly different when compared across the range of gestational ages (p less than .001). No correlation is seen (r = .00) between parental height or weight and fetal renal length. Our results show that fetal renal lengths are longer than previously reported.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish objective criteria for the evaluation of cortical echogenicity (CE), cortical thickness (CT), and medullary thickness (MT), as well as the corticomedullary ratio (CMR), throughout gestation. In this prospective single-center study, CE, MT, CT, and CMR were evaluated in a group of singleton pregnancies examined by ultrasound during the second and third trimesters. The CE evolved from a hyperechoic pattern compared with the liver or spleen during early second trimester to a hypoechogenic pattern in the third trimester, with no fetus displaying cortical hyperechogenicity after 32 weeks. CT increased from 1.8 to 2.5 mm (p < 0.05) from 21 to 25 to 34 to 37 weeks; MT from 2.7 to 5.1 mm (p < 0.0001), and the CMR decreased from 0.7 to 0.5 (p < 0.001). The CE, CT, and MT evolve with gestation. Cortical hyperechogenicity compared with the liver or spleen after 32 weeks or a CMR above 0.7 in the third trimester should raise the suspicion of a fetal nephropathy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Prenatal Diagnosis 09/2013; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To measure fetal renal volume in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic pregnancies. A longitudinal prospective study was conducted and included 92 hyperglycemic and 339 normoglycemic pregnant women attended at the prenatal service of a hospital from Rio de Janeiro State. Ultrasound examinations were performed to estimate gestational age at baseline and the kidney volume was estimated using the prolate ellipsoid volume equation. Fetal kidney volume growth between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic pregnancies are significantly different. The fetal kidney volume growth in pregnancy is positively correlated with gestational age explained by these predictor equations, by group: normal renal volume = exp (6.186+0.09×gestational week); hyperglycemic renal volume = exp (6.978+0.071×gestational week) and an excessive growth pattern for hyperglycemic pregnancies may be established according to gestational age. This is important for early detection of abnormalities in pregnancy, particularly in diabetic mothers.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To distinguish between cystatin C (CysC) and creatinine (Cr) as markers of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in preterm infants and to correlate eGFR with total kidney volume (TKV) as a surrogate of nephron mass. Study design Sixty preterm (<37 weeks' gestational age [GA]) and 40 term infants were enrolled at birth. Serum Cr and CysC levels were assessed during the first week of life. Renal ultrasounds were performed to assess kidney dimensions with calculation of the TKV as a surrogate of nephron mass. Six equations derived from reference inulin, iohexol, and iothalamate clearance studies were used to calculate eGFR. Multiple regression analysis was applied to assess the relative impact of neonatal measures on eGFR, including TKV, GA, and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Results Renal lengths correlated with GA and were within the reference values for intrauterine measurements. Estimation equations for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on Cr, CysC, and combined CysC + Cr demonstrated that Cr-based equations consistently underestimated GFR, whereas CysC and combined equations were more consistent with referenced inulin clearance studies. Term infants demonstrated significantly better eGFR than preterm infants. TKV, GA, and MAP correlated positively with eGFR, although only MAP and GA remained significant when adjusted for other covariates. Conclusions Primary determinants of eGFR in preterm infants are GA and MAP. The CysC level is a superior biomarker to serum Cr in the assessment of GFR in premature infants.
    The Journal of pediatrics 01/2014; · 4.02 Impact Factor

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