Genomic and subgenomic RNAs of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus are both protein-linked and packaged into particles.
ABSTRACT The major subgenomic RNA of the calicivirus rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus which codes for the viral capsid protein has been cloned as cDNA. The nucleotide sequence of this mRNA was shown to be identical to the 3' terminal region of the genomic RNA. The 5' end of the mRNA corresponds to position 5296 of the genomic sequence; except for two differences the first 16 nucleotides of genomic and subgenomic RNAs are identical. After isolation from liver tissue viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs were found to be resistant to RNase degradation. This protection was due to RNA packaging into particles. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation of liver homogenates allowed separation of such particles containing either genomic RNA or subgenomic RNA. Genomic and subgenomic RNAs are protein-linked and for the genomic molecule this interaction is localized within the first 179 nucleotides. After radioactive labeling of purified RNA and subsequent RNase treatment a protein of 15 kDa was identified.
Article: Characterisation of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus produced in Escherichia coli.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: All positive-strand RNA viruses encode a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase which in most cases has been only identified on the basis of its sequence conservation. Catalytic activity has been experimentally demonstrated in only a handful of these viral proteins, including that from Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. Studies from our laboratory have reported that RHDV RNA polymerase produced in Escherichia coli was enzymatically active showing poly(A)-dependent poly(U) polymerase as well as RNA polymerase activity on heteropolymeric substrates. In this work, we have investigated the in vitro activity of the recombinant 3Dpol from RHDV, including ion requirements, resistance to inhibitors, substrate specificity as well as data on the initiation mechanism of the template-linked products derived from heteropolymeric RNA substrates. Our study demonstrates that in an in vitro reaction recombinant RHDV RNA polymerase generated the minus strand of the heteropolymeric RNA substrates by a "copy-back" mechanism that initiated at the template 3'-terminal OH.Archives of Virology 02/2001; 146(1):59-69. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To allow the biochemical and structural characterization of the chymotrypsin-like "main proteinase" (non-structural protein 4; nsp4) of the arterivirus prototype Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV), we developed protocols for the large-scale production of recombinant nsp4 in Escherichia coli. The nsp4 proteinase was expressed either fused to maltose binding protein or carrying a C-terminal hexahistidine tag. Following purification, the nsp4 moiety of MBP-nsp4 was successfully used for structural studies [Barrette-Ng, I.H., Ng, K.K.S., Mark, B.L., van Aken, D., Cherney, M.M., Garen, C, Kolodenko, Y., Gorbalenya, A.E., Snijder, E.J., James, M.N.G, 2002. Structure of arterivirus nsp4-the smallest chymotrypsin-like proteinase with an alpha/beta C-terminal extension and alternate conformations of the oxyanion hole. J. Biol. Chem. 277, 39960-39966]. Furthermore, both forms of the EAV proteinase were shown to be proteolytically active in two different trans-cleavage assays. Recombinant nsp4 cleaved the cognate nsp6/7- and nsp7/8 site in in vitro synthesized substrates. In a synthetic peptide-based activity assay, the potential of the recombinant proteinase to cleave peptides mimicking the P9-P7' residues of six nsp4 cleavage sites was investigated. The peptide representing the EAV nsp7/8 junction was used to optimize the reaction conditions (pH 7.5, 25mM NaCl, 30% glycerol at 30 degrees C), which resulted in a maximum turnover of 15% of this substrate in 4h, using a substrate to enzyme molar ratio of 24:1. The assays described in this study can be used for a more extensive biochemical characterization of the EAV main proteinase, including studies aiming to identify inhibitors of proteolytic activity.Virus Research 10/2006; 120(1-2):97-106. · 2.94 Impact Factor
Article: Calicivirus 3C-like proteinase inhibits cellular translation by cleavage of poly(A)-binding protein.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Caliciviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a wide range of diseases in both humans and animals, but little is known about the regulation of cellular translation during infection. We used two distinct calicivirus strains, MD145-12 (genus Norovirus) and feline calicivirus (FCV) (genus Vesivirus), to investigate potential strategies used by the caliciviruses to inhibit cellular translation. Recombinant 3C-like proteinases (r3CL(pro)) from norovirus and FCV were found to cleave poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in the absence of other viral proteins. The norovirus r3CL(pro) PABP cleavage products were indistinguishable from those generated by poliovirus (PV) 3C(pro) cleavage, while the FCV r3CL(pro) products differed due to cleavage at an alternate cleavage site 24 amino acids downstream of one of the PV 3C(pro) cleavage sites. All cleavages by calicivirus or PV proteases separated the C-terminal domain of PABP that binds translation factors eIF4B and eRF3 from the N-terminal RNA-binding domain of PABP. The effect of PABP cleavage by the norovirus r3CL(pro) was analyzed in HeLa cell translation extracts, and the presence of r3CL(pro) inhibited translation of both endogenous and exogenous mRNAs. Translation inhibition was poly(A) dependent, and replenishment of the extracts with PABP restored translation. Analysis of FCV-infected feline kidney cells showed that the levels of de novo cellular protein synthesis decreased over time as virus-specific proteins accumulated, and cleavage of PABP occurred in virus-infected cells. Our data indicate that the calicivirus 3CL(pro), like PV 3C(pro), mediates the cleavage of PABP as part of its strategy to inhibit cellular translation. PABP cleavage may be a common mechanism among certain virus families to manipulate cellular translation.Journal of Virology 09/2004; 78(15):8172-82. · 5.40 Impact Factor