Assessment of neurotoxicity: use of glial fibrillary acidic protein as a biomarker.
ABSTRACT Diverse neurotoxic insults result in proliferation and hypertrophy of astrocytes. The hallmark of this response is enhanced expression of the major intermediate filament protein of astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These observations suggest that GFAP may be a useful biomarker of neurotoxicity. To investigate this possibility, we administered prototype neurotoxicants to experimental animals and assessed the effects of these agents on the tissue content of GFAP, as determined by radioimmunoassay. A review of the background, design, and results of these experiments are presented in this paper. Our findings indicate that GFAP is a sensitive and specific biomarker of neurotoxicity.
- SourceAvailable from: Nilesh Kumar Mitra[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chlorpyrifos (CPF), a commonly used pesticide worldwide, has been reported to produce neurobehavioural changes. Dermal exposure to CPF is common in industries and agriculture. This study estimates changes in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in hippocampal regions and correlates with histomorphometry of neurons and serum cholinesterase levels following dermal exposure to low doses of CPF with or without swim stress. Male albino mice were separated into control, stress control and four treatment groups (n = 6). CPF was applied dermally over the tails under occlusive bandage (6 hours/day) at doses of 1/10th (CPF 0.1) and 1/5th dermal LD50 (CPF 0.2) for seven days. Consequent treatment of swim stress followed by CPF was also applied. Serum cholinesterase levels were estimated using spectroflurometric methods. Paraffin sections of the left hippocampal regions were stained with 0.2% thionin followed by the counting of neuronal density. Right hippocampal sections were treated with Dako Envision GFAP antibodies. CPF application in 1/10th LD50 did not produce significant changes in serum cholinesterase levels and neuronal density, but increased GFAP expression significantly (p < 0.001). Swim stress with CPF 0.1 group did not show increase in astrocytic density compared to CPF 0.1 alone but decreased neuronal density. Findings suggest GFAP expression is upregulated with dermal exposure to low dose of CPF. Stress combined with sub-toxic dermal CPF exposure can produce neurotoxicity.Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 03/2011; 6(1):4.
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ABSTRACT: We have recently identified a class of imidazolium salts (IMSs) with antioxidative property and can function as scavengers for radical oxygen species (ROS) . Here, we investigate one of the IMSs, 1,3-bisbenzylimidazolium bromide (DBZIM), for its possible role in attenuating neurotoxicity and gliosis in the retina and the brain induced by a Parkinsonian neurtoxicant, methyl-4(2'-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (2'-CH(3) -MPTP), which is a free radical generating agent. In this study, we employ a molecular retinal imaging method, which we recently developed in a transgenic mouse model expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter , to assess the efficacy of DBZIM, since currently no in vitro system with a sufficient complexity is available for accurately assessing a compound's efficacy. The longitudinal imaging results showed DBZIM can effectively suppress the neurotoxicant-induced retinal gliosis. Immunohistochemistry performed on the postmodern mouse brain confirmed that DBZIM also reduced striatal gliosis, and concomitantly attenuated the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). These findings suggest that DBZIM could be a useful small molecular compound for studying neurotoxicity and neuroprotection in the retina and the brain.CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 06/2011; 17(3):148-57. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The retinal degeneration (RD) is a general cause of blindness. To study its pathophysiology and evaluate the effects of new therapeutic agents before clinical trials, it is essential to establish reliable and stable animal models. This study evaluated a RD animal model in which blindness was induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), a potent retinotoxin leading to apoptosis of photoreceptors. MNU was applied to the Sprague-Dawley rats by a single intraperitoneal injection in different doses (40, 50, and 60 mg/kg). The retinal functions were examined at 1 week after MNU injection by electroretinogram (ERG). Afterwards, each retina was examined by hematoxylin and eosin stain and immunohistochemistry with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody. Upon MNU injection of 40, 50 and 60 mg/kg, the ERG amplitude of a-waves showed significant reductions of 7, 26, and 44%, respectively, when compared to that of normal a-waves. The b-wave amplitudes were about 89, 65, and 58% of normal b-waves in the response to scotopic light stimulus. At 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after MNU injection (50 mg/kg), all scotopic ERG components decreased progressively. In addition, degeneration of retinal neurons was observed in a time- and dose-dependent manner after MNU injection. Taken together, functional reduction following RD induced by MNU correlates with morphological changes. Thus, this RD rat model may be a useful model to study its pathophysiology and to evaluate the effects of new therapeutic agents before clinical trials.Anatomy & cell biology 12/2011; 44(4):314-23.