Assessment of neurotoxicity: use of glial fibrillary acidic protein as a biomarker.
ABSTRACT Diverse neurotoxic insults result in proliferation and hypertrophy of astrocytes. The hallmark of this response is enhanced expression of the major intermediate filament protein of astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These observations suggest that GFAP may be a useful biomarker of neurotoxicity. To investigate this possibility, we administered prototype neurotoxicants to experimental animals and assessed the effects of these agents on the tissue content of GFAP, as determined by radioimmunoassay. A review of the background, design, and results of these experiments are presented in this paper. Our findings indicate that GFAP is a sensitive and specific biomarker of neurotoxicity.
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ABSTRACT: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a debilitating neurological injury, accounting for 10–15 % of all strokes. Despite neurosurgical intervention and supportive care, the 30-day mortality rate remains ~50 %, with ICH survivors frequently displaying neurological impairments and requiring long-term assisted care. Unfortunately, the lack of medical interventions to improve clinical outcomes has led to the notion that ICH is the least treatable form of stroke. Hence, additional studies are warranted to better understand the pathophysiology of ICH. Astrogliosis is an underlying astrocytic response to a wide range of brain injuries and postulated to have both beneficial and detrimental effects. However, the molecular mechanisms and functional roles of astrogliosis remain least characterized following ICH. Herein, we review the functional roles of astrogliosis in brain injuries and raise the prospects of therapeutically targeting astrogliosis after ICH.Translational Stroke Research. 3(1).
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ABSTRACT: Animal data show that high doses of the stimulant drug methamphetamine can damage brain dopamine neurones; however, it is still uncertain whether methamphetamine, at any dose, is neurotoxic to human brain. Since gliosis is typically associated with brain damage and is observed in animal models of methamphetamine exposure, we measured protein levels (intact protein and fragments, if any) of markers of microgliosis (glucose transporter-5, human leukocyte antigens HLA-DRα [TAL.1B5] and HLA-DR/DQ/DPβ [CR3/43]) and astrogliosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and heat shock protein-27) in homogenates of autopsied brain of chronic methamphetamine users (n=20) and matched controls (n=23). Intact protein levels of all markers were, as expected, elevated (+ 28%-1270%, P< 0.05) in putamen of patients with the neurodegenerative disorder multiple system atrophy (as a positive control) as were concentrations of fragments of glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin and heat shock protein-27 (+ 170%-4700%, P< 0.005). In contrast, intact protein concentrations of the markers were normal in dopamine-rich striatum (caudate, putamen) and in the frontal cortex of the drug users. However, striatal levels of cleaved vimentin and heat shock protein-27 were increased (by 98%-211%, P< 0.05), with positive correlations (r=0.41-0.60) observed between concentrations of truncated heat shock protein-27 and extent of dopamine loss (P= 0.006) and levels of lipid peroxidation products 4-hydroxynonenal (P= 0.046) and malondialdehyde (P= 0.11). Our failure to detect increased intact protein levels of commonly used markers of microgliosis and astrogliosis could be explained by exposure to methamphetamine insufficient to cause a toxic process associated with overt gliosis; however, about half of the subjects had died of drug intoxication suggesting that “high” drug doses might have been used. Alternatively, drug tolerance to toxic effects might have occurred in the subjects, who were all chronic methamphetamine users. Nevertheless, the finding of above-normal levels of striatal vimentin and heat shock protein-27 fragments (which constituted 10-28% of the intact protein), for which changes in the latter correlated with those of several markers possibly suggestive of damage, does suggest that some astrocytic “disturbance” had occurred, which might in principle be related to methamphetamine neurotoxicity or to a neuroplastic remodeling process. Taken together, our neurochemical findings do not provide strong evidence for either marked microgliosis or astrogliosis in at least a subgroup of human recreational methamphetamine users who used the drug chronically and shortly before death. However, a logistically more difficult quantitative histopathological study is needed to confirm whether glial changes occur or do not occur in brain of human methamphetamine (and amphetamine) users.Neurobiology of Disease 01/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and/or poly(lactic-acid) (PLA) microspheres are important drug delivery systems. This study investigated eye biocompatibility and safety of PLGA/PLA microspheres through intravitreal injection in rabbits. Normal New Zealand rabbits were randomly selected and received intravitreal administration of different doses (low, medium, or high) of PLGA/PLA microspheres and erythropoietin-loaded PLGA/PLA microspheres. The animals were clinically examined and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postadministration, and retinal tissues were prepared for analysis. Retinal reactions to the microspheres were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end staining and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry. Retinal structure changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, retinal function influences were explored by the electroretinography test. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end staining revealed no apoptotic cells in the injected retinas; immunohistochemistry did not detect any increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed no micro- or ultrastructure changes in the retinas at different time points postintravitreal injection. The electroretinography test showed no significant influence of scotopic or photopic amplitudes. The results demonstrated that PLGA/PLA microspheres did not cause retinal histological changes or functional damage and were biocompatible and safe enough for intravitreal injection in rabbits for controlled drug delivery.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9:3057-68. · 4.20 Impact Factor