Anticonvulsant actions of anticholinergic drugs in soman poisoning.
ABSTRACT The acute effects of the organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor soman include hypersecretions, convulsions, and death. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticholinergic compounds aprophen, atropine sulfate, azaprophen, benactyzine, benztropine, biperiden, scopolamine HBr, and trihexyphenidyl for their efficacy in preventing soman-induced hypersecretions and convulsions. Male rats were injected with the oxime HI-6 (125 mg/kg, i.p.), to increase survival time, along with various intramuscular doses of the anticholinergics 30 min prior to a dose of soman (180 micrograms/kg, s.c.; equivalent to 1.6 x the median lethal dose) that produced 100% convulsions. Signs of intoxication as well as the time-to-onset of convulsions were observed. The calculated anticonvulsant median effective dose values were 0.18, 0.33, 0.36, 0.55, 2.17, 2.30, 2.45, and 31.09 mumol/kg for scopolamine HBr, biperiden, trihexyphenidyl, benactyzine, benztropine, azaprophen, aprophen, and atropine sulfate, respectively. The same rank order of potency for inhibition of hypersecretions among these compounds was observed. Parallel studies with quaternary analogs of atropine sulfate and scopolamine HBr demonstrated, however, that these charged compounds afford no protection against soman-induced hypersecretions and convulsions. The results indicate that tertiary anticholinergic compounds afford protection against soman-induced convulsions and hypersecretions and that the beneficial anticonvulsant effects are mediated through the central cholinergic system. Excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems may be involved in the effectiveness of these compounds.
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ABSTRACT: It is generally accepted that there are at least three different subtypes of muscarinic cholinoceptors, pirenzepine being considered a selective M1 antagonist. In the present study, a number of different types of psychotropic drugs have been compared with pirenzepine and atropine as reference antimuscarinic drugs regarding their affinities for rat brain muscarinic cholinoceptors with the help of in vitro receptor binding studies. The most potent drugs, inhibiting 3H-1-quinuclidinyl benzilate (3H-QNB) binding at subnanomolar concentrations, were the antimuscarinic drugs scopolamine and atropine. Biperiden, promethazine, pirenzepine and some tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, doxepin) were the next potent drugs, with IC50-values between 8.4 nM and 190 nM. The inhibition curves were steep and parallel giving Hill coefficients close to unity in all but two drugs studied. These exceptions were biperiden and pirenzepine both with Hill coefficients about 0.55. Thus, in addition to pirenzepine also biperiden seems to bind to the M1 receptor selectively. Additional receptor and functional studies are warranted to further elucidate the possible similarities of these two drugs.Pharmacology & Toxicology 02/1987; 60(1):66-9.
- Molecular Pharmacology 06/1979; 15(3):545-58. · 4.41 Impact Factor
- European Journal of Pharmacology 11/1987; 142(2):319-20. · 2.59 Impact Factor