The potential for regeneration of articular cartilage in defects created by chondral shaving and subchondral abrasion. An experimental investigation in rabbits.
ABSTRACT Animal models for chondral shaving and subchondral abrasion were created to resolve the controversy about the nature of the repair tissue after these procedures and to determine the effect of continuous passive motion on the quality of the repair tissue. Chondral shaving was performed on the patella in forty adolescent rabbits, and subchondral abrasion was performed on the patella in another forty rabbits. In both procedures, a three-millimeter-diameter defect was created. After the operation, twenty animals from each group were allowed intermittent active motion; the remainder were treated by continuous passive motion for two weeks, followed by intermittent active motion. Half of the animals from each group were killed at four weeks and the other half, at twelve weeks. There was no evidence of repair tissue in the defects at either four or twelve weeks after chondral shaving, regardless of the postoperative treatment. The remaining underlying cartilage, however, had degenerated. After abrasion of subchondral bone, the defects in animals that were treated with only intermittent active motion healed at twelve weeks, although the quality of the repair tissue varied. All ten of the animals that were treated with continuous passive motion, however, had mature, hyaline-like cartilage as the predominant repair tissue at twelve weeks, compared with six of the ten animals that were treated with intermittent active motion (p less than 0.05). We concluded that, in this model, partial-thickness defects created by chondral shaving do not heal; rather, the remaining underlying cartilage degenerates. Full-thickness defects created by subchondral abrasion can heal by regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage. Such healing is enhanced by continuous passive motion for two weeks postoperatively.
SourceAvailable from: Frances M D Henson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A major challenge in cartilage repair is the lack of chondrogenic cells migrating from healthy tissue into damaged areas and strategies to promote this should be developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of peripheral blood derived mononuclear cell (PBMC) stimulation on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from the infrapatellar fat pad of human OA knee. Cell migration was measured using an xCELLigence electronic migration chamber system in combination with scratch assays. Gene expression was quantified with stem cell PCR arrays and validated using quantitative real-time PCR (rtPCR). In both migration assays PBMCs increased MSC migration by comparison to control. In scratch assay the wound closure was 55% higher after 3 hours in the PBMC stimulated test group (P = 0.002), migration rate was 9 times faster (P = 0.008), and total MSC migration was 25 times higher after 24 hours (P = 0.014). Analysis of MSCs by PCR array demonstrated that PBMCs induced the upregulation of genes associated with chondrogenic differentiation over 15-fold. In conclusion, PBMCs increase both MSC migration and differentiation suggesting that they are an ideal candidate for inclusion in regenerative medicine therapies aimed at cartilage repair.01/2015; Article ID 323454. DOI:10.1155/2015/323454
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ABSTRACT: Articular cartilage repair is one of the most challenging problems in biomedical engineering because the regenerative capacity of cartilage is intrinsically poor. The lack of efficient treatment modalities motivates researches into cartilage tissue engineering such as combing cells, scaffolds and growth factors. In this review we summarize the current developments on scaffold systems available for cartilage tissue engineering. The factors that are critical to successfully design an ideal scaffold for cartilage regeneration were discussed. Then we present examples of selected material types (natural polymers and synthetic polymers) and fabricated forms of the scaffolds (three-dimensional scaffolds, micro- or nanoparticles, and their composites). In the end of review, we conclude with an overview of the ways in which biomedical nanotechnology is widely applied in cartilage tissue engineering, especially in the design of composite scaffolds. This review attempts to provide recommendations on the combination of qualities that would produce the ideal scaffold system for cartilage tissue engineering.Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 10/2014; 10(10):3085-3104. DOI:10.1166/jbn.2014.1934 · 7.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To facilitate establishment of an effective thermotherapy for osteoarthritis (OA), we investigated the effects of the thermal environment on articular chondrocyte metabolism in vitro. Chondrocytes were isolated from porcine knee joints, and cultured at 32°C, 37°C and 41°C. Cell proliferation and viability were assessed at Days 2, 4 and 8. In addition, TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed at Day 3 to determine the proportion of apoptotic chondrocytes. Analysis of genes specific for factors related to the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), cartilage destruction, and cartilage protection was performed at Day 2. Furthermore, evaluation of heat stress tolerance, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA expression and protein synthesis was performed at Day 2 and 3, respectively. Cell proliferation was more at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C. Cell viability and the number of TUNEL-positive cells were not affected until Day 8 and 3, respectively. The expression of the ECM-related genes was up-regulated at higher temperature. The expression of MMP13, a type II collagen destructive enzyme, and that of TIMP1 and TIMP2, which are MMP inhibitors, were up-regulated at higher temperatures. Finally, the chondrocytes cultured at 41°C may acquire heat stress tolerance, in part, due to the up-regulation of HSP70, and may inhibit apoptosis induced by various stresses, which is observed in OA. The thermal environment affects articular chondrocyte metabolism, and a heat stimulus of approximately 41°C could enhance chondrocyte anabolism and induce heat stress tolerance.Journal of the Japanese Physical Therapy Association 01/2014; 17(1):14-21. DOI:10.1298/jjpta.17.14