Sinusoidal endothelial liver cells in vitro release endothelin--augmentation by transforming growth factor beta and Kupffer cell-conditioned media.
ABSTRACT Endothelin is the most potent vasoconstrictor peptide known today. Using a radioimmunoassay for endothelin, we measured immunoreactive endothelin in culture media of guinea pig sinusoidal endothelial liver cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. A time-dependent release of immunoreactive endothelin by confluent sinusoidal endothelial liver cells in culture was found. Sinusoidal endothelial liver cells produced similar amounts of immunoreactive endothelin as umbilical vein endothelial cells, about 900 pg/microgram DNA per 24 h. In the presence of transforming growth factor beta a dose-dependent increase of immunoreactive endothelin release was measured. The maximal increase of 50% was found at a concentration of 1 ng transforming growth factor per ml. To a similar extent Kupffer cell-conditioned media augmented the release of immunoreactive endothelin by sinusoidal endothelial liver cells, especially when Kupffer cells had been stimulated by endotoxin. Endotoxin itself did not alter the release of immunoreactive endothelin. Endothelin released by sinusoidal endothelial liver cells might influence the pericytes of the liver, i.e., the Ito-cells.
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ABSTRACT: Endothelin (ET) peptides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several biological processes within the liver. ET levels are elevated in the circulation of patients with cirrhosis, and recent data suggest that ET may be overproduced in the liver itself in this condition. The aims of the current study were to elucidate the cellular source and expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in normal and injured liver, and to investigate its biological effects on stellate cells, the primary target of ETs in the liver. In normal hepatic cells, preproET-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was detected in only nonparenchymal cells, predominantly in sinusoidal endothelial cells. After biliary fibrosis and early cirrhosis induced by bile duct ligation, preproET-1 mRNA and immunoreactive ET levels increased with progressive injury in whole liver extracts, as well as in isolated stellate and endothelial cell fractions. Eight days after bile duct ligation, the relative increase in preproET-1 mRNA was 1.6- and 7.6-fold above normal in sinusoidal endothelial and stellate cells, respectively. Additionally, immunoreactive ET peptide levels increased by 60% ± 27% over basal values in sinusoidal endothelial cells and 98% ± 40% in stellate cells. Cultured stellate cells responded dramatically to exogenous ET-1 by the spreading and up-regulation of smooth muscle α actin expression. Furthermore, in early culture before cellular activation, ET-1 (10 nmol/L) caused over a twofold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, while activated cells (i.e., those cultured for >1 week) exposed to ET-1 exhibited up to a fivefold decrease in [3H]thymidine incorporation. The data indicate that not only is ET-1 overproduced by both sinusoidal endothelial and stellate cells during liver injury, but that it also has potent effects on features of stellate cell activation. We conclude that autocrine and paracrine production of ET-1 is prominent and is likely to be important in the pathogenesis of hepatic diseases.Hepatology 01/1998; 27(2):472 - 480. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are located between the sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes. HSCs are activated during liver injury and cause hepatic fibrosis by producing excessive extracellular matrix. HSCs also produce many growth factors, chemokines and cytokines, and thus may play an important role in acute liver injury. However, this function has not been clarified due to unavailability of a model in which HSCs are depleted from the normal liver. We treated mice expressing HSV-thymidine kinase under the GFAP promoter (GFAP-Tg) with 3 consecutive (3 days apart) CCl4 (0.16 μl/g; ip) injections to stimulate HSCs to enter the cell cycle and proliferate. This was followed by 10-day ganciclovir (40 μg/g/day; ip) treatment, which is expected to eliminate actively proliferating HSCs. Mice were then subjected to hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or endotoxin treatment. CCl4/ganciclovir treatment caused depletion of the majority of HSCs (about 64-72%), while the liver recovered from the initial CCl4-induced injury (confirmed by histology, serum ALT and neutrophil infiltration). The magnitude of hepatic injury due to I/R or endotoxemia (determined by histopathology and serum ALT) was lower in HSC-depleted mice. Their hepatic expression of TNF-α, neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL1 and endothelin-A receptor also was significantly lower than the control mice. HSCs play an important role both in I/R- and endotoxin-induced acute hepatocyte injury, with TNF-α and endothelin-1 as important mediators of these effects.Journal of Hepatology 09/2013; · 9.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Time lapse cinematographic analysis revealed that the frequency of canalicular contractions in primary monolayer-cultured hepatocytes (couplets or triplets) isolated from rat livers increased in the presence of monolayer-sinusoidal endothelial cells by the NG-L monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA)-treatment as compared to that in a control. Transmission electron microscopy revealed an enhanced vesicular transport to the canalicular lumens at the contracted bile canaliculi in the L-NMMA-treated couplets or triplets.Medical Electron Microscopy 08/1995; 28(2).