Effect of nanoparticles on transdermal drug delivery.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to assess by in vitro means the effect of poly (methylmethacrylate) nanoparticles and poly (butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles on transdermal drug delivery. Methanol and octanol were chosen as test permeants. In order to distinguish between thermodynamic effect and those due to biological consequences, two different membranes were employed, i.e., full thickness hairless mouse skin and silicone elastomer sheeting (175 microns). It is evident that poly (methylmethacrylate) nanoparticles and poly (butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles increase the permeability of methanol through hairless mouse skin by a factor of 1.2-2. The permeability of lipophilic octanol is either unaffected by nanoparticles or decreases as a function of nanoparticle concentration depending on the lipophilicity of the polymer material.
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ABSTRACT: Because of their large size compared to small molecules and their multifunctionality, nanoparticles (NPs) hold promise as biomedical imaging, diagnostic, and theragnostic agents. However, the key to their success hinges on a detailed understanding of their behavior after administration into the body. NP biodistribution, target binding, and clearance are complex functions of their physicochemical properties in serum, which include hydrodynamic diameter, solubility, stability, shape and flexibility, surface charge, composition, and formulation. Moreover, many materials used to construct NPs have real or potential toxicity or may interfere with other medical tests. In this review, we discuss the design considerations that mediate NP behavior in the body and the fundamental principles that govern clinical translation. By analyzing those nanomaterials that have already received regulatory approval, most of which are actually therapeutic agents, we attempt to predict which types of NPs hold potential as diagnostic agents for biomedical imaging. Finally, using quantum dots as an example, we provide a framework for deciding whether an NP-based agent is the best choice for a particular clinical application.Molecular Imaging 12/2010; 9(6):291-310. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a transdermal gel formulation for Diclofenac diethylamine (DDEA) and Curcumin (CRM). A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used to derive a second-order polynomial equation to construct contour plots for prediction of responses. Independent variables studied were the polymer concentration (X(1)), ethanol (X(2)) and propylene glycol (X(3)) and the levels of each factor were low, medium, and high. The dependent variables studied were the skin permeation rate of DDEA (Y(1)), skin permeation rate of CRM (Y(2)), and viscosity of the gels (Y(3)). Response surface plots were drawn, statistical validity of the polynomials was established to find the compositions of optimized formulation which was evaluated using the Franz-type diffusion cell. The permeation rate of DDEA increased proportionally with ethanol concentration but decreased with polymer concentration, whereas the permeation rate of CRM increased proportionally with polymer concentration. Gels showed a non-Fickian super case II (typical zero order) and non-Fickian diffusion release mechanism for DDEA and CRM, respectively. The design demonstrated the role of the derived polynomial equation and contour plots in predicting the values of dependent variables for the preparation and optimization of gel formulation for transdermal drug release.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 02/2011; 100(2):580-93. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vitro permeation of nabumetone across rat skin from nanoemulsions of soybean oil in 2.5% aqueous glycerol stabilized with a blend of lecithin and 1‐O‐alkylglycerol (C10, C12, C14, or C16 chain length) was studied. The mean droplet size of the emulsions was in the range of 214 to 280 nm. 1‐O‐Alkylglycerol stabilized emulsions showed significant enhancement in permeation of nabumetone. This enhancement is attributed to the interaction of 1‐O‐alkylglycerol with the skin lipids, fluidizing the lipid matrix and bringing about disordering effect. The extent of interaction appears to depend on chain length of 1‐O‐alkylglycerol. 1‐O‐Decylglycerol stabilized emulsion showed highest flux in the first four hours and did not exhibit any lag time. The other emulsions showed increase in lag time with increase in the chain length of 1‐O‐alkylglycerol. Control nabumetone solution exhibited highest overall flux, but it showed lower flux than nanoemulsions stabilized by 1‐O‐decylglycerol for the initial four hours and a significantly higher flux thereafter. This appears to be due to slow extraction of skin lipid by the solvent action of control solution and consequent permeabilization of the skin.Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology - J DISPER SCI TECH. 01/2006; 27(7):921-926.