Empathic joy and the empathy-altruism hypothesis.
ABSTRACT Three experiments tested whether empathy evokes egoistic motivation to share vicariously in the victim's joy at improvement (the empathic-joy hypothesis) instead of altruistic motivation to increase the victim's welfare (the empathy-altruism hypothesis). In Experiment 1, Ss induced to feel either low or high empathy for a young woman in need were given a chance to help her. Some believed that if they helped they would receive feedback about her improvement; others did not. In Experiments 2 and 3, Ss induced to feel either low or high empathy were given a choice of getting update information about a needy person's condition. Before choosing, they were told the likelihood of the person's condition having improved--and of their experiencing empathic joy--was 20%, was 50%, or was 80%. Results of none of the experiments patterned as predicted by the empathic-joy hypothesis; instead, results of each were consistent with the empathy-altruism hypothesis.
Article: Quasi-experimental research designs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In complex naturally occurring health-care situations, it is often difficult, and sometimes impossible, for ethical and/or practical reasons to meet the requirements of manipulation and control needed in true and ideal group experiments. If researchers wish to investigate causal relationships in such circumstances then quasi-experimental designs are recommended. The designs represent approximations of true experiments because they do not meet all the necessary requirements, such as random allocation of subjects to groups, control and manipulation. Consequently, quasi-experimental designs are not as powerful as true experimental designs in establishing causal relationships but nevertheless allow such relationships to be considered by a process of rejecting rival hypotheses. This article outlines the two main approaches to quasi-experimental designs and provides an example of each. Other methods related to the quasi-experiment are also highlighted.British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing) 01/1996; 5(17):1079-81.