Concussion in sports. Guidelines for the prevention of catastrophic outcome.
ABSTRACT Concussion (defined as a traumatically induced alteration in mental status, not necessarily with loss of consciousness) is a common form of sports-related injury too often dismissed as trivial by physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, sports reporters, and athletes themselves. While head injuries can occur in virtually any form of athletic activity, they occur most frequently in contact sports, such as football, boxing, and martial arts competition, or from high-velocity collisions or falls in basketball, soccer, and ice hockey. The pathophysiology of concussion is less well understood than that of severe head injury, and it has received less attention as a result. We describe a high school football player who died of diffuse brain swelling after repeated concussions without loss of consciousness. Guidelines have been developed to reduce the risk of such serious catastrophic outcomes after concussion in sports.
- SourceAvailable from: Ralph E Cornwell Jr[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Concussions have reached epidemic levels. There is no cure for concussions. Measures taken to reduce concussions have not been effective. The majority of research is focused on concussion causation and concussion management after the fact. The research continues but the number of concussions in athletics increases each year. No methodical approach to producing a specific protocol to strengthen the head and neck muscles exists and no systematic study of increase in neck musculature attributed to such a protocol is documented. Thus, this study will produce a standardized methodology for the reduction of concussive and subconcussive forces, laying the foundation for further research in this area. The research participants were healthy male and female college students, age range 18- 24. There were 30 participants. Of the 30 subjects used for this study, 18 participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group and 12 participants in the control group. The participants followed a protocol consisting of 13 movements designed to sequentially train the musculature of the head, neck and upper back. The duration of the study was 8 weeks. The strength increases were significant in the active participant group. The hypertrophy of the head and neck muscles was equally as significant and even more impressive in the male group. The females exhibited minimal muscle hypertrophy. Every active participant experienced strength increases during the eight week study; likewise each active male participant exhibited neck circumference increases. The control group experienced negligible strength or hypertrophy increases.11/2013, Degree: Doctor of Philosophy, Supervisor: Richard Winett
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, the understanding of concussion has evolved in the research and medical communities to include more subtle and transient symptoms. The accepted definition of concussion in these communities has reflected this change. However, it is unclear whether this shift is also reflected in the understanding of the athletic community.Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2014; 5:99-103.
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ABSTRACT: In post-Renaissance France and England, society ridiculed and humiliated husbands thought to be battered and/or dominated by their wives (Steinmetz, 1977-78). In France, for instance, a "battered" husband was trotted around town riding a donkey backwards while holding its tail. In England, "abused" husbands were strapped to a cart and paraded around town, all the while subjected to the people's derision and contempt. Such "treatments" for these husbands arose out of the patriarchal ethos where a husband was expected to dominate his wife, making her, if the occasion arose, the proper target for necessary marital chastisement; not the other way around (Dobash & Dobash, 1979). Although the patriarchal view supporting a husband's complete dominance of his wife persisted into the twentieth century (E. Pleck, 1987), during the latter half of this century, we find a definite shift in people's attitudes toward marital relationships. Beginning in the 1970s, for instance, advocates like Del Martin (1976) and Erin Pizzey (Pizzey 1974; Pizzey & Shapiro, 1982) exposed the "hidden" secret of domestic violence. As a result, terms like "domestic violence," "domestic abuse," and "battered wife" have found their way into our everyday speech. Finally, society seems to be taking the issue of domestic violence against women seriously and looking for solutions to stem if not to end the violence. Most of the early research dealing with domestic violence focused solely on the female victims and the social factors that supported the victimization of women (Smith, 1989). Consequently, a voluminous literature now exists that portrays domestic violence as a unitary social phenomenon stemming from a patriarchal social order where women are portrayed as the victims and men perceived as the perpetrators (Dobash & Dobash, 1979). Such research has had a significant impact upon the evolution of recent changes in civil law, enforcement of criminal law, and the ways law enforcement and social agencies respond to the needs of battered wives (see Victim Support, 1992).