Crystallization and a preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.
ABSTRACT alpha-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method in the presence of calcium ions using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. The crystals are tetragonal, belonging to the space group P4(1)2(1)2 (or P4(3)2(1)2), with unit cell dimensions of a = 119.9 and c = 85.4 A. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of alpha-amylase, with a crystal volume per protein mass (VM) of 2.78 A3/Da. The crystals diffract to better than 2.0 A Bragg spacing when exposed to synchrotron X-rays and they are reasonably stable in the X-ray beam. Thus the crystals are suitable for structure determination at high resolution by X-ray methods.
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ABSTRACT: Ecotin, a homodimeric protein composed of 142 residue subunits, is a novel serine protease inhibitor present in Escherichia coli. Its thermostability and acid stability, as well as broad specificity toward proteases, make it an interesting protein for structural characterization. Its structure in the uncomplexed state, determined for two different crystalline environments, allows a structural comparison of the free inhibitor with that in complex with trypsin. Although there is no gross structural rearrangement of ecotin when binding trypsin, the loops involved in binding trypsin show relatively large shifts in atomic positions. The inherent flexibility of the loops and the highly nonglobular shape are the two features essential for its inhibitory function. An insight into the understanding of the structural basis of thermostability and acid stability of ecotin is also provided by the present structure.Protein Science 10/1996; 5(11):2236 - 2247. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper reports that the acetylation of lysine epsilon-NH3(+) groups of alpha-amylase--one of the most important hydrolytic enzymes used in industry--produces highly negatively charged variants that are enzymatically active, thermostable, and more resistant than the wild-type enzyme to irreversible inactivation on exposure to denaturing conditions (e.g., 1 h at 90 degrees C in solutions containing 100-mM sodium dodecyl sulfate). Acetylation also protected the enzyme against irreversible inactivation by the neutral surfactant TRITON X-100 (polyethylene glycol p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl ether), but not by the cationic surfactant, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB). The increased resistance of acetylated alpha-amylase toward inactivation is attributed to the increased net negative charge of alpha-amylase that resulted from the acetylation of lysine ammonium groups (lysine epsilon-NH3(+) --> epsilon-NHCOCH3). Increases in the net negative charge of proteins can decrease the rate of unfolding by anionic surfactants, and can also decrease the rate of protein aggregation. The acetylation of lysine represents a simple, inexpensive method for stabilizing bacterial alpha-amylase against irreversible inactivation in the presence of the anionic and neutral surfactants that are commonly used in industrial applications.Protein Science 05/2008; 17(8):1446-55. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A series of 33 single and mosaic hybrid alpha-amylases was constructed from the genes amyBA or amyLI, encoding the alpha-amylases from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (AmyBA) and Bacillus licheniformis (AmyLI). The hybrid proteins, consisting of the entire alpha-amylase sequence with a variable portion of AmyBA or AmyLI origin, were characterized in order to find enzymes with new properties (thermostability, temperature and pH optima, and substrate specificity), and to localize the amino acid sequence regions responsible for the changes. The thermostability of the AmyBA/AmyLI (AL-type) hybrid proteins correlated with the position and the length of the hybrid sequence. The hybrid enzymes fell into six groups retaining, in comparison to AmyBA, a certain value of the extra-thermostability of AmyLI or becoming more thermolabile than AmyBA. Four regions are proposed to contain thermostability determinants (TSDs). They map between amino acid residues 34-76, 112-142, 174-179 and 263-276 of the respective hybrid enzymes, indicating the dominance of the N-terminal half of AmyLI for these hybrid enzymes' resistance against irreversible inactivation. Two (TSD3 and TSD4) coincide with regions I and II that had already been suggested to stabilise AmyLI [Suzuki, Y., Ito, N., Yuuki, T., Yamagata, H. & Udake, S. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 18,933-18,938]. The temperature dependence of activity of the AL-type hybrid alpha-amylases was compared at pH 6.4 and pH 7.6 and the hybrid enzymes of one thermostability group were found to have similar temperature responses. A hybrid region between residues 34-76 is demonstrated to correlate with the alpha-amylases' substrate specificity, i.e. either hydrolysis or accumulation of maltohexaose. This region was therefore named the G6G5 region. The exchange of internal sequences between residues 17-201 of AmyBA by the AmyLI counterpart in ALA-type mosaic hybrid alpha-amylases, with one exception (ALA99-429), unexpectedly destabilized the respective ALA-type hybrids. Two of these hybrid alpha-amylases (ALA17-151 and ALA76-151) were less thermostable than AmyBA, while others (ALA112-151, ALA112-201) were enzymically inactive. These data support specific roles of the predicted A1-B domain portion between residues 17-201 of those Bacillus alpha-amylases probably for correct folding and enzymic activity.European Journal of Biochemistry 07/1995; 230(2):481-90. · 3.58 Impact Factor