[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disassembly of the nuclear lamina is a key step during open mitosis in higher eukaryotes. The activity of several kinases, including CDK1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) and protein kinase C (PKC), has been shown to trigger mitotic lamin disassembly, yet their precise contributions are unclear. In this study, we develop a quantitative imaging assay to study mitotic lamin B1 disassembly in living cells. We find that CDK1 and PKC act in concert to mediate phosphorylation-dependent lamin B1 disassembly during mitosis. Using ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi), we showed that diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent PKCs triggered rate-limiting steps of lamin disassembly. RNAi-mediated depletion or chemical inhibition of lipins, enzymes that produce DAG, delayed lamin disassembly to a similar extent as does PKC inhibition/depletion. Furthermore, the delay of lamin B1 disassembly after lipin depletion could be rescued by the addition of DAG. These findings suggest that lipins activate a PKC-dependent pathway during mitotic lamin disassembly and provide evidence for a lipid-mediated mitotic signaling event.
The Journal of Cell Biology 09/2012; 198(6):981-90. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201205103 · 9.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cell polarity regulator, human Scribble (hScrib), is a potential tumour suppressor whose loss is a frequent event in late-stage cancer development. Little is yet known about the mode of action of hScrib, although recent reports suggest its role in the regulation of cell signalling. In this study we show that hScrib is a direct regulator of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In human keratinocytes, loss of hScrib results in elevated phospho-ERK levels and concomitant increased nuclear translocation of phospho-ERK. We also show that hScrib interacts with ERK through two well-conserved kinase interaction motif (KIM) docking sites, both of which are also required for ERK-induced phosphorylation of hScrib on two distinct residues. Although wild-type hScrib can downregulate activation of ERK and oncogenic Ras co-transforming activity, an hScrib mutant that lacks the carboxy terminal KIM docking site has no such effects. These results provide a clear mechanistic explanation of how hScrib can regulate ERK signalling and begin to explain how loss of hScrib during cancer development can contribute to disease progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Learning, memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) are supported by factors including post-synaptic calcium ion flux activating and transforming the hexagonal calcium-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) holoenzyme. Upon calcium-induced activation, up to six kinase domains extend upward, and up to six kinase domains extend downward from the CaMKII association domain, the fully activated holoenzyme resembling a robotic insect 20 nanometers in length. Each extended kinase domain can be phosphorylated, and able to phosphorylate other proteins, thus potentially further encoding synaptic information at intraneuronal molecular sites for memory storage, processing and distribution. Candidate sites for phosphorylation-encoded molecular memory include microtubules, cylindrical lattice polymers of the protein tubulin. Using molecular modeling, we find spatial dimensions and geometry of the six extended CaMKII kinase domains can precisely match those of microtubule hexagonal lattice neighborhoods (both A- and B-lattices), and show two feasible phosphorylation mechanisms. In one, phosphorylation sites (e.g., valine 208) on a CaMKII extended kinase domain interact with serine 444 on a C-terminal "tail" of tubulin. In the second, the CaMKII kinase domain unfurls, enabling phosphorylation sites to contact threonine and serine sites on the tubulin surface. We suggest sets of six CaMKII kinase domains phosphorylate hexagonal microtubule lattice neighborhoods collectively, e.g., conveying synaptic information as ordered arrays of six "bits", and thus a "byte", with (minimally) 2⁶ (64) possible bit states per CaMKII-microtubule interaction. We model two levels of interaction between CaMKII and microtubules, suggesting a testable framework for molecular memory encoding.
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