Ryanodine receptor gene is a candidate for predisposition to malignant hyperthermia.
ABSTRACT Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a potentially lethal condition in which sustained muscle contracture, with attendant hypercatabolic reactions and elevation in body temperature, are triggered by commonly used inhalational anaesthetics and skeletal muscle relaxants. In humans, the trait is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, but in halothane-sensitive pigs with a similar phenotype, inheritance of the disease is autosomal recessive or co-dominant. A simple and accurate non-invasive test for the gene is not available and predisposition to the disease is currently determined through a halothane- and/or caffeine-induced contracture test on a skeletal muscle biopsy. Because Ca2+ is the chief regulator of muscle contraction and metabolism, the primary defect in MH is believed to lie in Ca2+ regulation. Indeed, several studies indicate a defect in the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, making it a prime candidate for the altered gene product in predisposed individuals. We have recently cloned complementary DNA and genomic DNA encoding the human ryanodine receptor (the Ca2(+)-release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum) and mapped the ryanodine receptor gene (RYR) to region q13.1 of human chromosome 19 (ref. 14), in close proximity to genetic markers that have been shown to map near the MH susceptibility locus in humans and the halothane-sensitive gene in pigs. As a more definitive test of whether the RYR gene is a candidate gene for the human MH phenotype, we have carried out a linkage study with MH families to determine whether the MH phenotype segregates with chromosome 19q markers, including markers in the RYR gene. Co-segregation of MH with RYR markers, resulting in a lod score of 4.20 at a linkage distance of zero centimorgans, indicates that MH is likely to be caused by mutations in the RYR gene.
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ABSTRACT: Background: 4-Chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) induces marked contractures in skeletal muscle specimens from individuals susceptible to malignant hyperthermia (MHS). In contrast, 4-CmC induces only small contractures in specimens from normal (MHN) patients. 4-CmC is a preservative within a large number of commercially available drug-preparations (e.g., insulin, heparin, succinylcholine), and it has been suggested that 4-CmC might trigger malignant hyperthermia. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 4-CmC in vivo and in vitro in the same animals.Anesthesiology 06/1999; 90(6):1733-1740. DOI:10.1097/00000542-199906000-00031 · 6.17 Impact Factor
Article: [Malignant hyperthermia.][Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare hereditary, mostly subclinical myopathy. Trigger substances, such as volatile anesthetic agents and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine can induce a potentially fatal metabolic increase in predisposed patients caused by a dysregulation of the myoplasmic calcium (Ca) concentration. Mutations in the dihydropyridine ryanodine receptor complex in combination with the trigger substances are responsible for an uncontrolled release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This leads to activation of the contractile apparatus and a massive increase in cellular energy production. Exhaustion of the cellular energy reserves ultimately results in local muscle cell destruction and subsequent cardiovascular failure. The clinical picture of MH episodes is very variable. Early symptoms are hypoxia, hypercapnia and cardiac arrhythmia whereas the body temperature rise, after which MH is named, often occurs later. Decisive for the course of MH episodes is a timely targeted therapy. Following introduction of the hydantoin derivative dantrolene, the previously high mortality of fulminant MH episodes could be reduced to well under 10 %. An MH predisposition can be detected using the invasive in vitro contracture test (IVCT) or mutation analysis. Few elaborate diagnostic procedures are in the developmental stage.Der Anaesthesist 11/2014; 63(12). DOI:10.1007/s00101-014-2392-x · 0.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Central core disease (CCD) is a congenital myopathy characterized by distinctive cores in muscle fibers. Mutations in the gene encoding ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) have been identified in most CCD patients. Two unrelated patients presented with slowly progressive or nonprogressive proximal muscle weakness since childhood. Their family history revealed some members with the same clinical problem. Histological analysis of muscle biopsy samples revealed numerous peripheral cores in the muscle fibers. RYR1 sequence analysis disclosed a novel mutation in exon 101 (c.14590T>C) and confirmed a previously reported mutation in exon 102 (c.14678G>A). We report herein two families with CCD in whom missense mutations at the C-terminal of RYR1 were identified. Although it has been accepted that such mutations are usually associated with a severe clinical phenotype and clearly demarcated central cores, our patients exhibited a mild clinical phenotype without facial muscle involvement and skeletal deformities, and atypical cores in their muscle biopsy specimens.Journal of Clinical Neurology 01/2015; 11(1):97-101. DOI:10.3988/jcn.2015.11.1.97 · 1.81 Impact Factor