Ryanodine receptor gene is a candidate for predisposition to Malignant Hyperthermia
Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, Charles H. Best Institute, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Nature
(Impact Factor: 41.46).
03/1990; 343(6258):559-61. DOI: 10.1038/343559a0
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a potentially lethal condition in which sustained muscle contracture, with attendant hypercatabolic reactions and elevation in body temperature, are triggered by commonly used inhalational anaesthetics and skeletal muscle relaxants. In humans, the trait is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, but in halothane-sensitive pigs with a similar phenotype, inheritance of the disease is autosomal recessive or co-dominant. A simple and accurate non-invasive test for the gene is not available and predisposition to the disease is currently determined through a halothane- and/or caffeine-induced contracture test on a skeletal muscle biopsy. Because Ca2+ is the chief regulator of muscle contraction and metabolism, the primary defect in MH is believed to lie in Ca2+ regulation. Indeed, several studies indicate a defect in the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, making it a prime candidate for the altered gene product in predisposed individuals. We have recently cloned complementary DNA and genomic DNA encoding the human ryanodine receptor (the Ca2(+)-release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum) and mapped the ryanodine receptor gene (RYR) to region q13.1 of human chromosome 19 (ref. 14), in close proximity to genetic markers that have been shown to map near the MH susceptibility locus in humans and the halothane-sensitive gene in pigs. As a more definitive test of whether the RYR gene is a candidate gene for the human MH phenotype, we have carried out a linkage study with MH families to determine whether the MH phenotype segregates with chromosome 19q markers, including markers in the RYR gene. Co-segregation of MH with RYR markers, resulting in a lod score of 4.20 at a linkage distance of zero centimorgans, indicates that MH is likely to be caused by mutations in the RYR gene.
Available from: Frank Lehmann-Horn
- "In skeletal muscle, the primary mode of Ca2+ release is through direct protein-protein interaction between the voltage sensor of the t-tubular membrane, the dihydropyridine -sensitive L-type Ca2+-channel CaV1.1 (DHPR) and the ryanodine receptor subtype 1 (RyR1), the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) (Figure 1A). The RyR1 is identified as a key element in the pathophysiology of MH [3,4]. Currently more than 300 different variants of uncertain significance in the gene coding for RyR1 have been detected, however until now only 31 RyR1 mutations have been proven to be causative for MH according to the criteria of the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group (see http://www.emhg.org). "
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ABSTRACT: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare pharmacogenetic disorder which is characterized by life-threatening metabolic crises during general anesthesia. Classical triggering substances are volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine (SCh). The molecular basis of MH is excessive release of Ca2+ in skeletal muscle principally by a mutated ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). To identify factors explaining the variable phenotypic presentation and complex pathomechanism, we analyzed proven MH events in terms of clinical course, muscle contracture, genetic factors and pharmocological triggers.
In a multi-centre study including seven European MH units, patients with a history of a clinical MH episode confirmed by susceptible (MHS) or equivocal (MHE) in vitro contracture tests (IVCT) were investigated. A test result is considered to be MHE if the muscle specimens develop pathological contractures in response to only one of the two test substances, halothane or caffeine. Crises were evaluated using a clinical grading scale (CGS), results of IVCT and genetic screening. The effects of SCh and volatile anesthetics on Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were studied in vitro.
A total of 200 patients met the inclusion criteria. Two MH crises (1%) were triggered by SCh (1 MHS, 1 MHE), 18% by volatile anesthetics and 81% by a combination of both. Patients were 70% male and 50% were younger than 12 years old. Overall, CGS was in accord with IVCT results. Crises triggered by enflurane had a significantly higher CGS compared to halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane. Of the 200 patients, 103 carried RyR1 variants, of which 14 were novel. CGS varied depending on the location of the mutation within the RyR1 gene. In contrast to volatile anesthetics, SCh did not evoke Ca2+ release from isolated rat SR vesicles.
An MH event could depend on patient-related risk factors such as male gender, young age and causative RyR1 mutations as well as on the use of drugs lowering the threshold of myoplasmic Ca2+ release. SCh might act as an accelerant by promoting unspecific Ca2+ influx via the sarcolemma and indirect RyR1 activation. Most MH crises develop in response to the combined administration of SCh and volatile anesthetics.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 01/2014; 9(1):8. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-9-8 · 3.36 Impact Factor
Available from: Frank W Nicholas
- "This is the first case of a human Mendelian disorder being mapped on the basis of information gleaned from nonlaboratory animals. In the same paper, MacLennan et al. (1990) reported that the ryanodine receptor shows zero recombination with MH in humans. The race was then on to search for causal mutations in this candidate gene in humans and in pigs! "
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ABSTRACT: Within two years of the re-discovery of Mendelism, Bateson and Saunders had described six traits in non-laboratory animals (five in chickens and one in cattle) that show single-locus (Mendelian) inheritance. In the ensuing decades, much progress was made in documenting an ever-increasing number of such traits. In 1987 came the first discovery of a causal mutation for a Mendelian trait in non-laboratory animals: a non-sense mutation in the thyroglobulin gene (TG), causing familial goitre in cattle. In the years that followed, the rate of discovery of causal mutations increased, aided mightily by the creation of genome-wide microsatellite maps in the 1990s and even more mightily by genome assemblies and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips in the 2000s. With sequencing costs decreasing rapidly, by 2012 causal mutations were being discovered in non-laboratory animals at a rate of more than one per week. By the end of 2012, the total number of Mendelian traits in non-laboratory animals with known causal mutations had reached 499, which was half the number of published single-locus (Mendelian) traits in those species. The distribution of types of mutations documented in non-laboratory animals is fairly similar to that in humans, with almost half being missense or non-sense mutations. The ratio of missense to non-sense mutations in non-laboratory animals to the end of 2012 was 193:78. The fraction of non-sense mutations (78/271 = 0.29) was not very different from the fraction of non-stop codons that are just one base substitution away from a stop codon (21/61 = 0.34).
Animal Genetics 12/2013; 45(2). DOI:10.1111/age.12103 · 2.21 Impact Factor
Available from: Sarah C Nelson
- "For example, the 7q22 region, that contains the genes reelin (RELN) and leptin (LEP), is linked to several conditions including: osteoarthritis , autism , body mass index [21,22], and dilated cardiomyopathy . The region on 19q12, that contains the gene for the ryanodine receptor [RYR1]  (a class of intracellular calcium channels found primarily in cardiac muscle), are linked to paraoxonase levels as well as linked to waist circumference , BMI , resistance to muscle fatigue , essential hypertension , prostate cancer , maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) , and malignant hyperthermia . "
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ABSTRACT: Given the importance of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to public health and the demonstrated heritability of both disease status and its related risk factors, identifying the genetic variation underlying these susceptibilities is a critical step in understanding the pathogenesis of CVD and informing prevention and treatment strategies. Although one can look for genetic variation underlying susceptibility to CVD per se, it can be difficult to define the disease phenotype for such a qualitative analysis and CVD itself represents a convergence of diverse etiologic pathways. Alternatively, one can study the genetics of intermediate traits that are known risk factors for CVD, which can be measured quantitatively. Using the latter strategy, we have measured 21 cardiovascular-related biomarkers in an extended multigenerational pedigree, the CARRIAGE family (Carolinas Region Interaction of Aging, Genes, and Environment). These biomarkers belong to inflammatory and immune, connective tissue, lipid, and hemostasis pathways. Of these, 18 met our quality control standards. Using the pedigree and biomarker data, we have estimated the broad sense heritability (H2) of each biomarker (ranging from 0.09-0.56). A genome-wide panel of 6,015 SNPs was used subsequently to map these biomarkers as quantitative traits. Four showed noteworthy evidence for linkage in multipoint analysis (LOD score ≥ 2.6): paraoxonase (chromosome 8p11, 21), the chemokine RANTES (22q13.33), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3, 17p13.3), and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF, 8q22.1). Identifying the causal variation underlying each linkage score will help to unravel the genetic architecture of these quantitative traits and, by extension, the genetic architecture of cardiovascular risk.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71779. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071779 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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