Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) can coinfect and simultaneously replicate in the same human CD4+ cell: effect of coinfection on infectious HSV-2 and HIV-1 replication.
ABSTRACT Experiments were designed to determine whether HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) coinfection leads to simultaneous replication of both viruses in the same human CD4+ cell (MT-4 cell line) and the possible effects of coinfection on infectious virus production. Results from transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed replication of typical HSV-2 nucleocapsids in the nucleus and budding of HIV-1 particles through the plasma membrane and through intracytoplasmic vacuoles containing enveloped HSV-2 particles in the same coinfected cell. Coinfection of HIV-1 persistently infected H9IIIB or promonocytic U1 cells with HSV-2 did not alter total production of infectious HSV-2 or the percentage of HSV-2 infectious centers compared with control H9 and U937 cells infected with HSV-2 alone. However, in coinfected promonocytic U1 cells HSV-2 induced infectious HIV-1 production measured by syncytial plaque assay. In summary, both HIV-1 and HSV-2 can coinfect and simultaneously replicate in the same human CD4+ cell. Interactions between HIV-1 and HSV-2 appear to be unidirectional, resulting in accelerated replication of HIV-1 as reported by Albrecht et al. (J Virol 1989;63:1861-1868), but not HSV-2 as shown by us.
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ABSTRACT: Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:20. DOI:10.1155/2014/350195 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Due to shared routes of infection, HIV-infected persons are frequently coinfected with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Studies have demonstrated the bidirectional relationships between HIV and several STIs, including herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), hepatitis B and C viruses, human papilloma virus, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomonas. HIV-1 may affect the clinical presentation, treatment outcome, and progression of STIs, such as syphilis, HSV-2, and hepatitis B and C viruses. Likewise, the presence of an STI may increase both genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, enhancing the transmissibility of HIV-1, with important public health implications. Regarding the effect of STIs on HIV-1 progression, the most studied interrelationship has been with HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfection, with recent studies showing that antiherpetic medications slow the time to CD4 <200 cells/µL and antiretroviral therapy among coinfected patients. The impact of other chronic STIs (hepatitis B and C) on HIV-1 progression requires further study, but some studies have shown increased mortality rates. Treatable, nonchronic STIs (i.e., syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomonas) typically have no or transient impacts on plasma HIV RNA levels that resolve with antimicrobial therapy; no long-term effects on outcomes have been shown. Future studies are advocated to continue investigating the complex interplay between HIV-1 and other STIs.06/2013; 2013. DOI:10.1155/2013/176459