Blood pressure and coronary heart disease.
Clinical Trial Service Unit and ICRF Cancer Studies Unit, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, UKThe Lancet (Impact Factor: 39.06). 09/1990; 336(8711):370-1. DOI:10.1016/0140-6736(90)91908-S
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ABSTRACT: The associations of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with stroke and with coronary heart disease (CHD) were investigated in nine major prospective observational studies: total 420,000 individuals, 843 strokes, and 4856 CHD events, 6-25 (mean 10) years of follow-up. The combined results demonstrate positive, continuous, and apparently independent associations, with no significant heterogeneity of effect among different studies. Within the range of DBP studied (about 70-110 mm Hg), there was no evidence of any "threshold" below which lower levels of DBP were not associated with lower risks of stroke and of CHD. Previous analyses have described the uncorrected associations of DBP measured just at "baseline" with subsequent disease rates. But, because of the diluting effects of random fluctuations in DBP, these substantially underestimate the true associations of the usual DBP (ie, an individual's long-term average DBP) with disease. After correction for this "regression dilution" bias, prolonged differences in usual DBP of 5, 7.5, and 10 mm Hg were respectively associated with at least 34%, 46%, and 56% less stroke and at least 21%, 29%, and 37% less CHD. These associations are about 60% greater than in previous uncorrected analyses. (This regression dilution bias is quite general, so analogous corrections to the relations of cholesterol to CHD or of various other risk factors to CHD or to other diseases would likewise increase their estimated strengths.) The DBP results suggest that for the large majority of individuals, whether conventionally "hypertensive" or "normotensive", a lower blood pressure should eventually confer a lower risk of vascular disease.The Lancet 04/1990; 335(8692):765-74. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are 14 unconfounded randomised trials of antihypertensive drugs (chiefly diuretics or beta-blockers): total 37,000 individuals, mean treatment duration 5 years, mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) difference 5-6 mm Hg. In prospective observational studies, a long-term difference of 5-6 mm Hg in usual DBP is associated with about 35-40% less stroke and 20-25% less coronary heart disease (CHD). For those dying in the trials, the DBP difference had persisted only 2-3 years, yet an overview showed that vascular mortality was significantly reduced (2p less than 0.0002); non-vascular mortality appeared unchanged. Stroke was reduced by 42% SD 6 (95% confidence interval 35-50%; 289 vs 484 events, 2p less than 0.0001), suggesting that virtually all the epidemiologically expected stroke reduction appears rapidly. CHD was reduced by 14% SD 5 (95% CI 4-22%; 671 vs 771 events, 2p less than 0.01), suggesting that just over half the epidemiologically expected CHD reduction appears rapidly. Although this significant CHD reduction could well be worthwhile, its size remains indefinite for most circumstances (though beta-blockers after myocardial infarction are of substantial benefit). At present, therefore, a sufficiently high risk of stroke (perhaps because of age, blood pressure, or, in particular, history of cerebrovascular disease) may be the clearest indication for antihypertensive treatment.The Lancet 05/1990; 335(8693):827-38. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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