"The techniques for transplanting fetal tissue have been, either open microsurgery (Madrazo et al., 1990; Molina et al., 1992) or stereotactic (Freed et al., 1990, 1992; Hitchcock et al., 1990; Lindvall et al., 1990). Fetal tissue in all cases was obtained from elective abortions (Table II). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and a striatal deficiency of dopamine. PD typically affects people in late middle age and progresses slowly. In the early stages of the disease, treatment targeting the dopaminergic network is effective. However, with disease progression, transplantation is an option for repairing and replacing missing dopaminergic neurons. 2. In this review, we evaluate the tissue grafts and cellular therapies that have and are being considered. Clinical trials were originally derived from transplants of adrenal medullary chromaffin cells and embryonic nigral dopaminergic neurons in patients with PD. 3. Recently, novel molecular and cellular treatments are being utilized in animals and these include embryonic stem cells, fetal cells from pigs, or transfected cells. In spite of new molecular techniques and some 20 years of experience, the transplantation therapy for PD has today the same problems and results as the first reports which used neural fetal tissue or adrenal grafts.
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