To facilitate the noninvasive preoperative localization of islet cell tumors less than 15 mm in diameter, the authors examined the use of calcium as an insulin secretagogue in an arterial stimulation venous sampling (ASVS) technique. In four patients with episodic hypoglycemia, calcium gluconate (0.01-0.025 mEq Ca2+/kg) was injected directly into branches of the celiac plexus (gastroduodenal, splenic, and hepatic arteries) and the superior mesenteric artery. In all patients, serum levels of insulin rose abruptly in blood samples taken from the right hepatic vein 30 and 60 seconds after the infusion of calcium into the artery supplying the tumor; injection into an artery not supplying the tumor did not result in a similar rise. Accurate localization of the insulinomas was verified at surgery in three patients. In the fourth patient, who did not undergo surgery, arteriographic results were positive for insulinoma at the predicted site. On the basis of these results, the authors believe noninvasive ASVS may replace invasive portal venous sampling as the most effective method for the localization of occult insulinomas.
"SASI test was developed by Imamura et al.27 to locate gastrinoma using secretin as stimulant. Subsequently, Doppman et al.28 applied this method for localizing insulinoma by changing the stimulant from secretin to calcium. In this test, a catheter is placed inside a hepatic vein under abdominal angiography in order to measure gastrin or insulin in the hepatic venous blood, and then secretin or calcium is injected into the artery responsible for each pancreatic region. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited autosomal dominant disease presenting with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs), parathyroid tumors, or pituitary tumors. Using the PubMed database, we reviewed the literature on information regarding the proper diagnosis and treatment of MEN1-associated pNET. Many cases of MEN1-associated pNET are functioning pNETs. Gastrinomas and insulinomas tend to occur frequently in the duodenum and pancreas, respectively. In addition to diagnostic imaging, the selective arterial secretagogue injection test (SASI test) is useful for localizing functioning pNET. The standard treatment is surgical resection. However, in the case of a functioning pNET, the tumor should first be accurately located using the SASI test before an appropriate surgical method is selected. In cases of a MEN1-associated non-functioning pNET that exceeds 2 cm in diameter, the incidence of distant metastasis is significantly increased, and surgery is recommended. In cases of unresectable pNET, a somatostatin analog has been shown to demonstrate antitumor effects and is considered to be a promising treatment. In addition, molecular-targeted drugs have recently been found to be effective in phase III clinical trials.
Gut and liver 07/2012; 6(3):287-94. DOI:10.5009/gnl.2012.6.3.287 · 1.81 Impact Factor
"However, abdominal arteriography revealed a vague area of hypervascularity in the tail of the pancreas. Due to this finding and the severity of her symptoms, she underwent selective arterial calcium stimulation with hepatic venous sampling for insulin as described by Doppman et al. . This test did not localize a region of insulin hypersecretion, and thus was not consistent with a diagnosis of insulinoma (Table 1). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. We evaluated a 47-year-old woman with a history of type 2 diabetes and severe obesity who developed postprandial hypoglycemia after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and losing 60% of her total body weight. We studied her insulin secretion and blood glucose dynamics and were able to tailor a therapeutic regimen involving insulin that eliminated episodes of hypoglycemia.
Methods. We studied blood glucose levels during a prolonged fast, performed continuous glucose monitoring studies using a subcutaneous glucose sensor, and evaluated regional pancreatic insulin secretion using selective arterial calcium stimulation.
Results. Continuous glucose monitoring revealed that the patient had early (1-2 hr) postprandial hyperglycemia followed by late (3-4 hr) postprandial hypoglycemia. Biochemical studies confirmed endogenous pancreatogenous insulin secretion as the cause of episodic hypoglycemia, but imaging studies and selective arterial calcium stimulation failed to localize an insulinoma. The patient was treated with preprandial doses of insulin aspart in order to attenuate the early postprandial hyperglycemia, and the late hypoglycemic episodes were avoided.
Conclusion. We describe an interesting and novel nonsurgical approach to the prevention of postprandial hypoglycemia in a patient with noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia after gastric bypass.
Case Reports in Endocrinology 06/2012; 2012:427565. DOI:10.1155/2012/427565
"The focal forms can indeed be definitively cured of hypoglycemia with partial elective pancreatectomy (10). The preoperative distinction between the two forms was initially established using selective pancreatic venous catherization (11,12), which has recently been abandoned for the less invasive positron emission tomography with [18F]fluoro-l-DOPA (13). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the long-term metabolic outcome of children with congenital hyperinsulinism after near-total or partial elective pancreatectomy.
Patients (n = 105: 58 diffuse and 47 focal congenital hyperinsulinism) received operations between 1984 and 2006. Follow-up consisted of periodic measurements of pre- and postprandial plasma glucose over 24 h, OGTT, and IVGTT. Cumulative incidence of hypo- or hyperglycemia/insulin treatment was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
After near-total pancreatectomy, 59% of children with diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism still presented mild or asymptomatic hypoglycemia that responded to medical treatments and disappeared within 5 years. One-third of the patients had both preprandial hypoglycemia and postprandial hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia was found in 53% of the patients immediately after surgery; its incidence increased regularly to 100% at 13 years. The cumulative incidence of insulin-treated patients was 42% at 8 years and reached 91% at 14 years, but the progression to insulin dependence was very variable among the patients. Plasma insulin responses to IVGTT and OGTT correlated well with glycemic alterations. In focal congenital hyperinsulinism, hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia were rare, mild, and transient.
Patients with focal congenital hyperinsulinism are cured of hypoglycemia after limited surgery, while the outcome of diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism is very variable after near-total pancreatectomy. The incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes is very high in early adolescence.
Diabetes care 12/2011; 35(2):198-203. DOI:10.2337/dc11-1296 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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