Insulinomas: localization with selective intraarterial injection of calcium.
ABSTRACT To facilitate the noninvasive preoperative localization of islet cell tumors less than 15 mm in diameter, the authors examined the use of calcium as an insulin secretagogue in an arterial stimulation venous sampling (ASVS) technique. In four patients with episodic hypoglycemia, calcium gluconate (0.01-0.025 mEq Ca2+/kg) was injected directly into branches of the celiac plexus (gastroduodenal, splenic, and hepatic arteries) and the superior mesenteric artery. In all patients, serum levels of insulin rose abruptly in blood samples taken from the right hepatic vein 30 and 60 seconds after the infusion of calcium into the artery supplying the tumor; injection into an artery not supplying the tumor did not result in a similar rise. Accurate localization of the insulinomas was verified at surgery in three patients. In the fourth patient, who did not undergo surgery, arteriographic results were positive for insulinoma at the predicted site. On the basis of these results, the authors believe noninvasive ASVS may replace invasive portal venous sampling as the most effective method for the localization of occult insulinomas.
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ABSTRACT: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited autosomal dominant disease presenting with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs), parathyroid tumors, or pituitary tumors. Using the PubMed database, we reviewed the literature on information regarding the proper diagnosis and treatment of MEN1-associated pNET. Many cases of MEN1-associated pNET are functioning pNETs. Gastrinomas and insulinomas tend to occur frequently in the duodenum and pancreas, respectively. In addition to diagnostic imaging, the selective arterial secretagogue injection test (SASI test) is useful for localizing functioning pNET. The standard treatment is surgical resection. However, in the case of a functioning pNET, the tumor should first be accurately located using the SASI test before an appropriate surgical method is selected. In cases of a MEN1-associated non-functioning pNET that exceeds 2 cm in diameter, the incidence of distant metastasis is significantly increased, and surgery is recommended. In cases of unresectable pNET, a somatostatin analog has been shown to demonstrate antitumor effects and is considered to be a promising treatment. In addition, molecular-targeted drugs have recently been found to be effective in phase III clinical trials.Gut and liver 07/2012; 6(3):287-94. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are a diverse group of rare neoplasms. Commonly referred to as islet cell tumors, PanNETs are classified as functional or nonfunctional depending on their production of specific pancreatic endocrine hormones (e.g. insulin, gastrin, glucagon, and others) and association with the resultant clinical syndromes. While most PanNETs are sporadic, syndromic patients, in particular those with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and von Hippel Lindau (VHL), are at increased risk of developing these tumors. Recent investigations of patients with sporadic and syndromic PanNETs have elucidated critical pathways in tumor development, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and its downstream growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Prognosis ranges from favorable for localized, low-grade neoplasms to poor for advanced, high-grade tumors. Regardless of the stage at presentation, surgery is the first-line therapy for patients with disease amenable to surgical resection. We favor formal pancreatectomy with conventional lymph node sampling for the vast majority of patients, either through open or laparoscopic techniques. Those with insulinomas, however, may be candidates for enucleation. Cytoreductive surgery is also recommended for patients with locoregional recurrences or hepatic metastases. Regional adjuvants such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and others are often employed in an attempt to palliate symptoms and prolong survival. Unfortunately, cytotoxic chemotherapy has been largely ineffective in treating patients with PanNETs. The somatostatin analogue octreotide, however, has been effective in palliating symptoms and slowing the progression of disease. Other promising systemic agents, including sunitinib and everolimus, have targeted critical PanNET signaling pathways. In summary, surgery remains the principal therapeutic strategy for patients with PanNETs, but continued research may identify more robust systemic therapies for those with advanced disease.Current Treatment Options in Oncology 12/2011; 13(1):24-34. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. We evaluated a 47-year-old woman with a history of type 2 diabetes and severe obesity who developed postprandial hypoglycemia after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and losing 60% of her total body weight. We studied her insulin secretion and blood glucose dynamics and were able to tailor a therapeutic regimen involving insulin that eliminated episodes of hypoglycemia. Methods. We studied blood glucose levels during a prolonged fast, performed continuous glucose monitoring studies using a subcutaneous glucose sensor, and evaluated regional pancreatic insulin secretion using selective arterial calcium stimulation. Results. Continuous glucose monitoring revealed that the patient had early (1-2 hr) postprandial hyperglycemia followed by late (3-4 hr) postprandial hypoglycemia. Biochemical studies confirmed endogenous pancreatogenous insulin secretion as the cause of episodic hypoglycemia, but imaging studies and selective arterial calcium stimulation failed to localize an insulinoma. The patient was treated with preprandial doses of insulin aspart in order to attenuate the early postprandial hyperglycemia, and the late hypoglycemic episodes were avoided. Conclusion. We describe an interesting and novel nonsurgical approach to the prevention of postprandial hypoglycemia in a patient with noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia after gastric bypass.Case reports in endocrinology. 01/2012; 2012:427565.