Outcome of CPR in a large metropolitan area--where are the survivors?
ABSTRACT Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in cities with populations of more than 1 million has not been studied adequately. This study was undertaken to determine the overall survival rate for Chicago and the effect of previously reported variables on survival, and to compare the observed survival rates with those previously reported.
Consecutive prehospital arrest patients were studied prospectively during 1987.
The study area was the city of Chicago, which has more than 3 million inhabitants in 228 square miles. The emergency medical services system, with 55 around-the-clock ambulances and 550 paramedics, is single-tiered and responds to more than 200,000 emergencies per year.
We studied 3,221 victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest on whom paramedics attempted resuscitation.
Ninety-one percent of patients were pronounced dead in emergency departments, 7% died in hospitals, and 2% survived to hospital discharge. Survival was significantly greater with bystander-witnessed arrest, bystander-initiated CPR, paramedic-witnessed arrest, initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation, and shorter treatment intervals.
The overall survival rates were significantly lower than those reported in most previous studies, all based on smaller communities; they were consistent with the rates reported in the one comparable study of a large city. The single factor that most likely contributed to the poor overall survival was the relatively long interval between collapse and defibrillation. Logistical, demographic, and other special characteristics of large cities may have affected the rates. To improve treatment of cardiac arrest in large cities and maximize the use of community resources, we recommend further study of comparable metropolitan areas using standardized terms and methodology. Detailed analysis of each component of the emergency medical services systems will aid in making improvements to maximize survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
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ABSTRACT: Despite immediate resuscitation, survival rates following out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) witnessed by emergency medical service (EMS) are reportedly low. We sought to compare survival and 12-month functional recovery outcomes for OHCA occurring before and after EMS arrival. Between 1st July 2008 and 30th June 2013, we included 8648 adult OHCA cases receiving an EMS attempted resuscitation from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry, and categorised them into five groups: bystander witnessed cases±bystander CPR, unwitnessed cases±bystander CPR, and EMS witnessed cases. The main outcomes were survival to hospital and survival to hospital discharge. Twelve-month survival with good functional recovery was measured in a sub-group of patients using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE). Baseline and arrest characteristics differed significantly across groups. Unadjusted survival outcomes were highest among bystander witnessed cases receiving bystander CPR and EMS witnessed cases, however outcomes differed significantly between these groups: survival to hospital (46.0% vs. 53.4% respectively, p<0.001); survival to hospital discharge (21.1% vs. 34.9% respectively, p<0.001). When compared to bystander witnessed cases receiving bystander CPR, EMS witnessed cases were associated with a significant improvement in the risk adjusted odds of survival to hospital (OR 2.02, 95% CI: 1.75-2.35), survival to hospital discharge (OR 6.16, 95% CI: 5.04-7.52) and survival to 12 months with good functional recovery (OR 5.56, 95% CI: 4.18-7.40). When compared to OHCA occurring prior to EMS arrival, EMS witnessed arrests were associated with significantly higher survival to hospital discharge rates and favourable neurological recovery at 12 months post arrest. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Resuscitation 01/2015; 89. DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.01.012 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Although injury is the leading cause of cardiac arrests in children older than 1 year, few studies have examined the survival and functional outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in pediatric trauma patients. Methods: A historical cohort of 957 trauma patients younger than 15 years who received CPR at the scene of injury or at the admitting hospital was constructed on the basis of the National Pediatric Trauma Registry. The rate of survival to discharge and factors related to survival were examined. Functional impairments were documented for surviving patients. Results: The overall survival rate was 23.5%. With adjustment for the Injury Severity Score, the risk of fatality after CPR increased for children with systolic blood pressure below 60 mm Hg at admission (odds ratio [OR] 24.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.6-69.3), for those who were comatose at admission (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.9-11.6), for those with penetrating injury (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.5-13.3), and for those with CPR initiated at the hospital (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-3.9). Surviving patients stayed in hospitals for an average of 24.3 days; at discharge, 64% had at least one impairment in the functional activities of daily living. Conclusions: Survival outcome of CPR in pediatric trauma patients appears to be comparable to that reported in adults of mixed arrest causes. Future research needs to identify factors underlying the excess mortality associated with penetrating trauma.The Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 07/1999; 47(1):1-7. DOI:10.1097/00005373-199907000-00001
Academic Emergency Medicine 01/2002; 9(7):671-678. DOI:10.1197/aemj.9.7.671 · 2.20 Impact Factor