Clinical and immunologic evaluations of reactive dye-exposed workers

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Impact Factor: 11.48). 04/1991; 87(3):639-49. DOI: 10.1016/0091-6749(91)90382-X
Source: PubMed


To evaluate type 1 hypersensitivity to reactive dyes, its prevalence, and its relationship to respiratory dysfunction, we studied clinical and immunologic features, including skin prick tests. RAST, and bronchoprovocation tests, of 309 employees working in a reactive-dye industry. Our survey revealed that 78 (25.2%) employees had work-related lower respiratory symptoms associated with or without nasal, skin, or eye symptoms. Among these employees, 38 (48.7%) had nonspecific bronchial reactivity. Thirteen demonstrated immediate (6), dual (6), or late only (1) asthmatic responses after inhalation of four kinds of reactive-dye solutions. Twenty-five employees demonstrated immediate skin responses to black GR dye, and 21 reacted to orange 3R. Fifty-three employees (17%) had specific serum IgE antibody against black GR and orange 3R-human serum albumin conjugate. Specific IgE was detected more frequently in symptomatic employees (30%) and smokers (100%). No association was found between atopy and specific IgE binding. The RAST-inhibition tests of black GR revealed significant inhibitions by black GR-human serum albumin conjugate and minimal inhibitions by unconjugated black GR. Orange 3R RAST-inhibition tests revealed significant inhibitions by conjugated forms of black GR and orange 3R and some inhibitions by two unconjugated dyes, suggesting an immunologic cross-reactivity between these dyes. These findings suggested that reactive dyes could induce immunologic responses, most likely IgE-mediated.

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    • "Allergic dermatoses and respiratory diseases are known to be caused by reactive dyes (Hatch and Maibach 1995; Manzini et al. 1996). Contact dermatitis, asthma (Thoren et al. 1980) and immunosensitivity (Park et al. 1991) have been reported in textile industry workers exposed to dyes. Previous studies have also suggested increased risks of colon and rectum cancers; however, these cancers relate mostly to dyes for synthetic fibres (De Roos et al. 2005). "
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    • "RDs were among the most frequent causes of OA in Korea until the 1990s.6 Of these dyes, Black GR is the most frequent sensitizer; others include Orange 3R, Blue GG, and Green 6B.4,7,8 There has been no previous report of OA caused by Synozol Red-K 3BS (Red-K). "
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