The open/closed conformational equilibrium of aspartate aminotransferase. Studies in the crystalline state and with a fluorescent probe in solution.
ABSTRACT Aspartate aminotransferase undergoes major shifts in the conformational equilibrium of the protein matrix during transamination. The present study defines the two conformational states of the enzyme by crystallographic analysis, examines the conditions under which the enzyme crystallizes in each of these conformations, and correlates these conditions with the conformational behaviour of the enzyme in solution, as monitored by a fluorescent reporter group. Cocrystallization of chicken mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase with inhibitors and covalent coenzymesubstrate adducts yields three different crystal forms. Unliganded enzyme forms triclinic crystals of the open conformation, the structure of which has been solved (space group P1) [Ford, G. C., Eichele, G. & Jansonius, J. N. (1980) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 77, 2559-2563; Kirsch, J. F., Eichele, G., Ford, G. C., Vincent, M. G., Jansonius, J. N., Gehring, H. & Christen, P. (1984) J. Mol. Biol. 174, 487-525]. Complexes of the enzyme with dicarboxylate ligands form monoclinic or orthorhombic crystals of the closed conformation. The results of structure determinations of the latter two crystal forms at 0.44 nm resolution are described here. In the closed conformation, the small domain has undergone a rigid-body rotation of 12-14 which closes the active-site pocket. Shifts in the conformational equilibrium of aspartate aminotransferase in solution, as induced by substrates, substrate analogues and specific dicarboxylic inhibitors, can be monitored by changes in the relative fluoresence yield of the enzyme labelled at Cys166 with monobromotrimethylammoniobimane. The pyridoxal and pyridoxamine forms of the labelled enzyme show the same fluorescence properties, whereas in the apoenzyme the fluorescence intensity is reduced by 30%. All active-site ligands, if added to the labelled pyridoxal enzyme at saturating concentrations, cause a decrease in the fluorescence intensity by 40-70% and a blue shift of maximally 5 nm. Comparison of the fluorescence properties of the enzyme in various functional states with the crystallographic data shows that both techniques probe the same conformational equilibrium. The conformational change that closes the active site seems to be ligand-induced in the reaction of the pyridoxal form of the enzyme and syncatalytic in the reverse reaction with the pyridoxamine enzyme.
- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.comFEBS Letters 05/1979; 100(2):265-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One sulfhydryl group of the mitochondrial isoenzyme of aspartate aminotransferase from both chicken and pig heart exhibits syncatalytic reactivity changes similar to those found previously in the cytosolic isoenzyme from pig heart (Birchmeier, W., Wilson, K.J., and Christen, P. (1973) J. Biol. Chem. , 1751–1759). The reactivity of the only titratable sulfhydryl group toward 5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoate) is at a minimum in the free pyridoxal and pyridoxamine form of the enzyme and is increased by approximately one order of magnitude when covalent enzyme-substrate intermediates are formed. The modification of the sulfhydryl group does not affect enzymatic activity. This finding supports the earlier conclusion that the syncatalytic reactivity changes are not due to a direct participation of this group in the active site but rather to conformational adaptations of the enzyme-coenzyme-substrate compound occurring in the catalytic mechanism of aspartate aminotransferases.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/1975; 63(2):441-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The apo/holo hydrid dimer of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase from pig heart has been isolated by isoelectric focusing from a semi-reconstituted apo enzyme preparation. Comparison of the catalytic center activity and of the optical features of the coenzyme chromophore of the hybrid containing one active center with that of the homomer containing two revealed no differences in these properties and suggests that the subunits function independently from one another. However, differential thermal inactivation studies of hybrids and of homomers showed that the subunit carrying the coenzyme markedly stabilizes the structure of the neighboring subunit. Thus, coenzyme binding elicits functionally mute conformational changes which extend to and across the subunit interface.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/1974; 61(1):117-23. · 2.41 Impact Factor