Canalicular stenosis following probing for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
ABSTRACT A canalicular stenosis was identified in 29 of 66 (44%) children and 35 of 80 (44%) lacrimal drainage systems undergoing silicone intubation for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction, having previously had unsuccessful probings. The stenoses were equally divided between boys and girls and between right and left sides. There was no significant difference in age at the time of probing, number of prior probings, or age at intubation between children with and without canalicular stenosis. Stenoses may be congenital or acquired as a result of faulty probing. Any child undergoing a second lacrimal procedure after a failed probing should be evaluated for evidence of a canalicular stenosis. If a stenosis is present, a silicone stent should be placed to try to salvage the canaliculus.
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ABSTRACT: We studied the possibility of placing a new type of monocanalicular nasal intubation under general anesthesia with spontaneous mask ventilation in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. This was a non-randomized study of consecutive cases using a monocanalicular stent called the "pushed Monoka". The benefits of anchoring with meatus fixation are similar to the original Monoka device, but the probe guide or introducer is inside the silicone tube. The external diameter of the "pushed Monoka" is 0.96 mm (versus 0.64 mm in the traditional Monoka). There are three lengths: 30, 35, and 40 mm. General anesthesia was administered by inhalation of a halogen gas using a facial mask. The technique was selected by lacrimal exploration to evaluate the extent of the stenosis (simple or complex). The location and freedom of movement of the stent into the inferior nasal meatus was tested using a second lacrimal probe. Only simple stenosis cases with positive metal-to-metal contact were included in the study. INSERTION TECHNIQUE: The introducer pushes the stent into the lacrimal duct. The introducer should be removed from the silicone sleeve very carefully by gently pulling it out, millimeter by millimeter. This action is carried out while paying careful attention to keeping the stent aligned with the major axis of the lacrimal sac. Throughout this phase, the anchoring plug should remain in contact with the lacrimal punctum. Once the introducer is completely removed, the anchoring plug is secured into the vertical canaliculus. A single-use plug inserter was used. Fourteen children (18 sides) with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction were consecutively included in the study. The pushed intubations were all performed under general anesthesia with spontaneous ventilation. The average age of the children was 26.2 months (range: 14 to 46 months). The average duration of the procedure, measured between the moment that the facial mask was put into place and the child's awakening (crying, restlessness) was 14 minutes (range: 9 to 27 minutes). The most variable parameter was the use of the venous portal. The introduction of the pushed probe itself required an average 7 minutes (range: 3 to 11 minutes). None of the children showed epistaxis. In general terms, no intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted. The "pushed Monoka" tubes were withdrawn during postoperative appointments with a mean intubation duration of 34 days (range: 1 to 59 days). Postoperative success (absence of epiphora, absence of mucous discharge) was achieved in 88% of cases (16/18 sides). The average follow-up was 8.7 weeks (range: 3 to 26 weeks). Complications and side effects were minimal. One stent was withdrawn on day 1 due to a keratitis with respect to the anchoring plug. Three stents were spontaneously lost (16%) between day 2 and day 30. Anterior rhinoscopy found none of the stents in the inferior nasal meatus. These four cases were all considered successful as there was no postoperative epiphora noted. Pushed nasolacrimal intubation can be safely utilized under general anesthesia with spontaneous mask ventilation. This technique appears to be a simple and safe alternative to late and very late probing in the treatment of membranous congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in children older than 12 months.Journal francais d'ophtalmologie 09/2010; 33(7):455-64. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our review aims to provide an update of management protocols for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNDO). Although early probing performed before the age of 1 year was traditionally recommended, many reports have since confirmed high frequencies of spontaneous resolution during the first year of life. Accordingly, a 'wait-and-see' approach, combined with conservative therapies, is judged to be the best option in infants aged<1 year. By contrast, persistent obstruction beyond 1 year of age warrants probing as a first-line interventional therapy. However, the optimal timing for probing remains controversial. Although there remains a high possibility of spontaneous resolution after the first year of age, this must be balanced against the decrease in success rates for probing that accompanies advancing age. If conservative management fails, persistent CNDO beyond 1 year of age should be managed either by further observation or by primary probing according to the severity of symptoms. In patients in whom probing fails, advanced treatment such as balloon catheter dilation, silicone tube intubation or dacryocystorhinostomy may be considered.Acta ophthalmologica 08/2009; 88(5):506-13. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the rate of symptomatic improvement of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) in Japanese infants treated with conservative management within the 1st year of age. Thirty-five lacrimal ducts in 27 patients diagnosed with CNLDO were included in the study. During the observational period, lacrimal ducts were massaged. As well, antibiotic eye drops, to be administered 4 times a day, were sometimes prescribed for obvious conjunctivitis. Two lacrimal ducts in 2 patients were probed before the 1st year of age because of dacryocystitis or severe blepharitis; these patients were included in the unimproved group. Twenty-nine lacrimal ducts in 21 patients resolved during the period (82.9%); with 16 lacrimal ducts resolving before six months of age. Therefore, a comparatively high percentage of resolution for CNLDO (82.9%) following conservative management was shown before the 1st year of age in Japanese infants.Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.) 07/2008; 2(2):291-4.