We report the construction of a cDNA clone encoding a functional GM2-activator protein. The sequence of the complete 5' end of the coding region was determined by direct nucleotide sequencing of a fragment generated by multiple RACE PCR procedures from Hela cell cDNA. Specific oligonucleotides were synthesized from these data which allowed us to produce a PCR fragment that contained the complete coding sequence of the protein. This was then cloned into a mammalian expression vector. The ability of purified hexosaminidase A (beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase, EC 22.214.171.124) to hydrolyse labeled GM2 ganglioside was enhanced 10-fold more by the addition in the assay mix of lysate from transfected COS-1 cells than by the addition of identical amounts of lysate from mock transfected cells. Direct sequencing of PCR fragments from two sources also identified three polymorphisms.
"Lysate from normal fibroblasts produced a weak, but easily detectable NBD- GM3 band (Fig. 4, lanes 2 and 3) that was not present in the substrate blank (lane 1). When 1 μg (20 μg/mL) of rGM2AP was present in the reaction, much more intense GM3 bands were produced (Fig. 4, lanes 4 and 5), consistent with the low level of GM2AP found in fibroblasts (Xie, et al. 1991). With this increased level of NBD-GM2 hydrolysis, the effect of adding CBE became apparent. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enzyme enhancement therapy, utilizing small molecules as pharmacological chaperones, is an attractive approach for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases that are associated with protein misfolding. However, pharmacological chaperones are also inhibitors of their target enzyme. Thus, a major concern with this approach is that, despite enhancing protein folding within, and intracellular transport of the functional mutant enzyme out of the endoplasmic reticulum, the chaperone will continue to inhibit the enzyme in the lysosome, preventing substrate clearance. Here we demonstrate that the in vitro hydrolysis of a fluorescent derivative of lyso-GM2 ganglioside, like natural GM2 ganglioside, is specifically carried out by the beta-hexosaminidase A isozyme, requires the GM2 activator protein as a co-factor, increases when the derivative is incorporated into anionic liposomes and follows similar Michaelis-Menten kinetics. This substrate can also be used to differentiate between lysates from normal and GM2 activator-deficient cells. When added to the growth medium of cells, the substrate is internalized and primarily incorporated into lysosomes. Utilizing adult Tay-Sachs fibroblasts that have been pre-treated with the pharmacological chaperone Pyrimethamine and subsequently loaded with this substrate, we demonstrate an increase in both the levels of mutant beta-hexosaminidase A and substrate-hydrolysis as compared to mock-treated cells.
"Although these nonspecific bands did not interfere with the isolation of the target fragment, it was determined that they could be removed by lowering the concentration of MgCl 2 to 2.0 mM. On the basis of exonic and intronic sequences obtained from this and a previous study (Xie et al. 1991 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficiency of the GM2 activator protein, encoded by GM2A, results in the rare AB-variant form of GM2 gangliosidosis. Four mutations have been identified, but the human gene structure has been only partially characterized. We report a new patient from a Laotian deme whose cells are deficient in both GM2-activator mRNA and protein. However, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR detected some normal-sized cDNA and a smaller cDNA species, which was not seen in the RT-PCR products from normal controls. Sequencing revealed that, although the patient's normal-sized cDNA contained a single nonsense mutation in exon 2, his smaller cDNA was the result of an in-frame deletion of exon 2. Long PCR was used to amplify introns 1 and 2 from patient and normal genomic DNA, and no differences in size, in 5' and 3' end sequences, or in restriction-mapping patterns were observed. From these data we developed a set of four PCR primers that can be used to identify GM2A mutations. We use this procedure to demonstrate that the patient is likely homozygous for the nonsense mutation. Other reports have associated nonsense mutations with dramatically reduced levels of mRNA and with an increased level of skipping of the exon containing the mutation, thus reestablishing an open reading frame. However, a recent article has concluded that, in some cases, the latter observation is caused by an artifact of RT-PCR. In support of this conclusion, we demonstrate that, if the competing, normal-sized cDNA is removed from the initial RT-PCR products, from both patient and normal cells, by an exon 2-specific restriction digest; a second round of PCR produces similar amounts of exon 2-deleted cDNA.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/1999; 65(1):77-87. DOI:10.1086/302463 · 10.93 Impact Factor
"However, there are only 579 bp required to encode the protein. We were able to identify only a further 90 residues in the 5' untranslated region (Xie et al. 1991). We conclude that the majority of these extra residues reside in the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The AB-variant form of GM2 gangliosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disease. Biochemical data have linked its cause to the lack of a functional GM2 activator protein (activator). In the present study we identify a mutation in the gene encoding the activator protein of an AB-variant patient. These data represent direct evidence that the disease in the patient described here is a result of mutations at the Activator gene locus. A T412----C transition was found in the homozygous form in cDNA and genomic DNA from the patient. This nucleotide change would result in the substitution of Cys138 by an Arg residue in the activator protein. Whereas the patient's fibroblasts produce apparently normal levels of activator mRNA, they lack a functional activator protein. Transfection of either a construct containing the normal activator cDNA, pAct1, or a cDNA construct containing the T----C transition caused COS-1 cells to transcribe high levels of activator mRNA. Lysates from cells transfected with pAct1 produced an elevated level of both pro- and mature forms of the activator protein, with an accompanying 11-fold enhancement in the ability of purified hexosaminidase A to hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. However, lysates from cells transfected with the mutant cDNA construct contained only low levels of the pro-activator protein, which failed to enhance hexosaminidase A activity significantly above the endogenous level of mock transfected COS cells. We conclude that the T412----C transition in the GM2 Activator gene of the patient is responsible for the disease phenotype.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 06/1992; 50(5):1046-52. · 10.93 Impact Factor
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