Efficacy in infancy of oligosaccharide conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (HbOC) vaccine in a United States population of 61,080 children. The Northern California Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Pediatrics Group
The efficacy of the HbOC conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine was evaluated in a study population of 61,080 infants in the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. Between February, 1988, and June, 1990, the HbOC vaccine was given as part of a three-dose series at 2, 4, and 6 months of age to 20,800 infants. The study population included children with a well-care visit at a study center during the first 6 months of life. There were 25 cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in the study population: 22 in unvaccinated children and 3 in children who received only one dose of HbOC vaccine. The efficacy of the full three-dose series was evaluated by several methods: a primary analysis comparing fully vaccinated children with unvaccinated children from 7 to 18 months of age; a stratified exact analysis adjusted for age and seasonality; and a case-control analysis which further adjusted for known risk factors. The efficacy of three doses of vaccine was 100% with the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval for the three analyses at 68, 71, and 64%, respectively. There were no cases of disease resulting from two doses of HbOC vaccine yielding an estimate of 100% efficacy (95% confidence interval, 47 to 100) for two doses of HbOC vaccine. However, for children who had received only one dose of HbOC vaccine, vaccine efficacy was estimated to be 26% and the possibility that one dose of HbOC vaccine had no efficacy could not be excluded.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
"This can be due to the inclusion of quasi-randomized and cluster randomized studies. The sensitivity analysis conducted first excluding only quasi randomized studies [Black et al. 1991; Booy et al. 1994] and then excluding only cluster randomized studies [Lagos et al. 1996; Gessner et al. 2005] failed to explain the heterogeneity observed in the metaanalysis . The heterogeneity may also have arisen "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an important cause of meningitis and pneumonia in children. Despite the availability of Hib conjugate vaccine, many countries are still to implement it in their immunization schedule. Before introducing the vaccine in routine immunization programs, it is important to know not only the cumulative efficacy but also the efficacy of each vaccine dose. The primary objective of this review is to find whether two primary dose schedule of Hib vaccine is equally efficacious as the standard three primary dose schedule. A highly sensitive online search was run using the terms ‘Haemophilus Vaccines’ or ‘Haemophilus influenzae type b’ and ‘conjugate vaccine’, and Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and Scopus were explored for prospective randomized controlled studies. Data were extracted in a predesigned proforma and analyzed using RevMan software. Nine randomized studies were included in the analysis. Pooled vaccine efficacy using a fixed effects model against confirmed invasive Hib disease following the 3, 2 and 1 primary dose schedule were 82% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73-87], 79% (95% CI 54–90) and 65% (95% CI 23–84), respectively, and the overall efficacy was 80% (95% CI 72–85). To conclude, we found that Hib conjugate vaccine is highly efficacious and that the two dose regime is as good as the three dose regime. [The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013004490)].
"The most common bacterial agents causing pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Haemophilus influenzae (Shann, 1986; Wall et al, 1986; Ghafoor et al, 1990; Forgie et al, 1991a,b; Adegbola et al, 1994). While it is estimated 39 No. 3 May 2008 that pneumococcus and H. influenzae contribute to over 1 million deaths annually among young children in developing countries (WHO, 1999a, 2006, 2007), vaccines have been shown to dramatically decrease the incidence of these diseases in both developed and developing countries (Black et al, 1991; Lagos et al, 1996; CDC, 2000; Whitney et al, 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a household survey among Sa Kaeo residents to characterize self-reported health-seeking behavior for pneumonia and the proportion of individuals who seek care at a hospital to determine the coverage of a surveillance system. A 2-stage cluster sample was used to select households. A case of pneumonia was defined as a self-reported history of cough and difficulty breathing for at least 2 days or being given a diagnosis of pneumonia by a healthcare provider in the 12-month period beginning February 1, 2002, and ending January 31, 2003. Interviewers administered a structured questionnaire that asked about clinical illness and utilization of healthcare services. Among 1,600 households, 5,658 persons were surveyed, of whom 62 persons met the case definition. Of the 59 persons with complete data, 53 (90%, 95% CI: 79-96) sought medical care and 47 (80%, 95% CI: 67-89) sought care at a hospital facility in the province. Neither distance nor cost was reported as a barrier to seeking care. Most individuals with self-reported pneumonia sought care at the hospital level. Population-based surveillance can provide reliable estimates of hospitalized, chest radiograph-confirmed pneumonia in Sa Kaeo if adjustments are made to account for the proportion of individuals who access a hospital where radiologic assessment is available.
The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 06/2008; 39(3):549-56. · 0.72 Impact Factor
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