The Psychology Student Stress Questionnaire.
ABSTRACT Stressors of graduate psychology training remain relatively unexplored. The Psychology Student Stress Questionnaire (PSSQ) was developed to assess the impact of emotional, financial, and academic stressors of graduate psychology training on students. The PSSQ was administered, along with the Symptom Check List-90-R and the Health and Daily Living Form, to 133 graduate psychology students. Significant though limited correlations were obtained between the PSSQ and the two stress measures. Factor analysis of the PSSQ yielded seven underlying factors; time constraints accounted for the greatest variance in stress ratings. Female students had higher stress scores than males. These results suggest that the PSSQ could be useful in exploring student stress in graduate psychology training.
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ABSTRACT: Background & Objectives: Stress results from perception of individual to external threats. Stress in academic life affects all college students regardless of their programs. It has been well established in many studies that pharmacy students suffer a massy amount of stress but empirical evidence with regard to how much stress affects pharmacy students and how they cope with it is still needed. The present paper vows constructing a special tool to be used in gauging stress of pharmacy undergraduates.Method: The Stress in Academic Life Scale (SALS) was answered by 388 Malaysian pharmacy undergraduate students from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) during an experimental session. Face validity was obtained earlier in an extensive pilot study involving 100 participants. Content validity was established along with piloting. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to confirm the multi-dimensional structure and further validity. Principal component factor extraction with Varimax rotation had decided the final factors matrix and items loading.Results: Reliability for SALS measured by Cronbach’s α coefficient was 0.860 (ranging from 0.501 to 0.701 for the factors). All correlations between the factors were significant (p < 0.05; two-tailed Pearson’s; n = 388). Significant correlation (p < 0.05; two-tailed Pearson’s; n = 264) between similar related variables of SALS and the Modified Stress Questionnaire has demonstrated construct (convergent) validity for the new scale. SALS’s components expressed 52.7% of the total explained variance.Conclusion: Outcome of validity tests, reliability, and correlational matrices had all demonstrated statistical stability for SALS as a scale. Diversity of stressors from academic, emotional, social, and other interactions which embraces the academic life in pharmacy school make SALS applicable for usage to measure stress specifically among pharmacy undergraduate students.International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health. 01/2010;
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ABSTRACT: Clinical psychology trainees (CPTs) are vulnerable to high stress, which can adversely affect their personal and professional functioning. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) informed stress management intervention for CPTs. Outcome measures were work-related stress, distress, life satisfaction, counseling self-efficacy, self-compassion, and therapeutic alliance. A cohort-controlled design, where an experimental group (n = 28) was compared with a waitlist control group (n = 28), was utilized, with a 10-week follow-up. Group comparisons showed statistically significant intervention effects for the main outcome measures, which were maintained at follow-up. Mediational analyses showed that changes on most outcomes were mediated by ACT mindfulness and acceptance processes. Findings support the effectiveness of a group ACT program for CPTs regarding stress reduction and improving therapist qualities.Journal of Clinical Psychology 05/2012; 68(6):592-13. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Irrational beliefs can be defined as dysfunctional thoughts having been unintentionally introduced in our belief system during our childhood across through life experiences. As shown in previous studies, these beliefs can eventually cause affective disorders. Markus & Merkey  demonstrated the existence of a link between irrational beliefs and health concerns in a psychology student sample of 493. Szasz  explored irrational beliefs and depressogenic rumination as a factor for stress vulnerability. Previous research has also shown that stress plays an important role in student life (Anders and El-Ghorung 0055 and 0060); a main concern for students being exam performance . The objective of this study is to explore the impact of rational and irrational beliefs regarding exam failure on the dispositional and situational stress. Method Three hundred undergraduate students in social sciences participated in this study. The sample consisted of 91 men and 209 women; mean age was 22 years (SD = 4.87). One hundred students from each of first, second and third years participated in the study. Data were collected using a scale of rational and irrational beliefs (Montgomery ) and a stress scale (Boucher ). An exploratory factor analysis with principal components using varimax rotation was conducted with the stress scale identifying a three-factor solution explaining 54% of the variance: dispositional, situational, and cognitive stress. Dispositional stress covered internal and personal aspects of stress like physical manifestations such as trembling, nervousness, and panicked feelings. Situational stress was related to environmental and interpersonal aspects, like family and peers. Cognitive stress was represented by concentration skills or distractibility. Data were analyzed using Statistica software version 7.0. Results Bravais Pearson correlations and mean comparisons with Student t and as well as hierarchical stepwise regressions were performed. Rational beliefs were negatively correlated with dispositional (r = –0.15, P = 0.008) and situational stress (r = –0.25, P < 0.001) while irrational beliefs correlate positively with the dispositional (r = 0.32, P < 0.001) and situational stress (r = 0.38, P < 0.01). Women had average scores of dispositional (t (298) = 4.42, P < 0.001) and situational stress (t (298) = 4.19, P < 0.001) higher than men. Students resuming their studies after a break were less exposed to situational stress than students without interruptions (t (298) = 1.97, P = 0.04). The stepwise hierarchical regression analysis showed that mostly gender and irrational beliefs predicted dispositional and situational stress. Discussion The results show that the presence of irrational beliefs related to the idea of failing an exam increases the risk of dispositional stress; i.e., internal aspects such as physical manifestations of stress, nervousness and feelings of panic. These beliefs also increase the risk of situational stress such as that related to external events and relationships with relatives. Girls are more at risk for both aspects of stress. Cognitive stress in this study was not related to any rational or irrational beliefs variables. Of particular interest are the stronger relationships between irrational beliefs and stress; rational beliefs were correlated inversely to stress but with a weaker relationship. This suggests that irrational beliefs are more predisposing to experiencing stress than rational beliefs might be a protective factor against stress. This last interpretation merits additional study as the relationship between experienced/perceived stress and rational/irrational beliefs has not been widely studies. Based on the four pillars of the Ellis theory these results can provide a basis for prevention and treatment for students facing difficulties with their exams.Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive 03/2014; 24(1):14 - 23.