The paired-comparison paradigm and infant intelligence.

Department of Psychology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.38). 02/1990; 608:337-57; discussion 358-64. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1990.tb48902.x
Source: PubMed
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We assessed visual short-term memory (VSTM) for color in 6- and 8-month-old infants (n = 76) using a one-shot change detection task. In this task, a sample array of two colored squares was visible for 517 ms, followed by a 317-ms retention period and then a 3000-ms test array consisting of one unchanged item and one item in a new color. We tracked gaze at 60 Hz while infants looked at the changed and unchanged items during test. When the two sample items were different colors (Experiment 1), 8-month-old infants exhibited a preference for the changed item, indicating memory for the colors, but 6-month-olds exhibited no evidence of memory. When the two sample items were the same color and did not need to be encoded as separate objects (Experiment 2), 6-month-old infants demonstrated memory. These results show that infants can encode information in VSTM in a single, brief exposure that simulates the timing of a single fixation period in natural scene viewing, and they reveal rapid developmental changes between 6 and 8 months in the ability to store individuated items in VSTM.
    Frontiers in Psychology 01/2013; 4:697. · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined the interactions between visual recognition memory, working memory, and categorization by examining 6-month-old infants' (N = 168) memory for individual items in a categorized list (e.g., images of dogs or cats). In Experiments 1 and 2, infants were familiarized with 6 different cats or dogs, presented one at a time on a series of 15-s familiarization trials. When the test occurred immediately after the sixth familiarization trial (Experiment 1), infants showed strong novelty preference for items presented on the fourth or fifth familiarization trial, but not for the items presented on the first three trials or on the sixth trial. When a brief (15-s) retention delay occurred between the end of the sixth trial and the test trials (Experiment 2), memory for the sixth item was enhanced, memory for the fourth item was impaired, and memory for the fifth was unchanged relative to when no retention delay was included. Experiment 3 confirmed that infants can form a memory for the first item presented. These results reveal how factors such as interference and time to consolidate influence infants' visual recognition memory as they categorize a series of items.
    Journal of Cognition and Development 01/2013; 4(1):63-86. · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although synaptic plasticity is believed to comprise the cellular substrate for learning and memory, limited direct evidence exists that hippocampus-dependent learning actually triggers synaptic plasticity. It is likely, however, that long-term potentiation (LTP) works in concert with its counterpart, long-term depression (LTD) in the creation of spatial memory. It has been reported in rats that weak synaptic plasticity is facilitated into persistent plasticity if afferent stimulation is coupled with a novel spatial learning event. It is not known if this phenomenon also occurs in other species. We recorded from the hippocampal CA1 of freely behaving mice and observed that novel spatial learning triggers endogenous LTD. Specifically, we observed that LTD is enabled when test-pulse afferent stimulation is given during the learning of object constellations or during a spatial object recognition task. Intriguingly, LTP is significantly impaired by the same tasks, suggesting that LTD is the main cellular substrate for this type of learning. These data indicate that learning-facilitated plasticity is not exclusive to rats and that spatial learning leads to endogenous LTD in the hippocampus, suggesting an important role for this type of synaptic plasticity in the creation of hippocampus-dependent memory.
    Cerebral Cortex 04/2012; · 8.31 Impact Factor