The paired-comparison paradigm and infant intelligence.
Department of Psychology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.38). 02/1990; 608:337-57; discussion 358-64. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1990.tb48902.x
- Child Development 07/1974; 45(2):351-6. · 4.72 Impact Factor
Article: Selective looking by infants.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previous studies of selective looking have shown that adults and young children can easily follow one visually specified event while ignoring another on which it is optically superimposed. The present experiments show that 4-month-old infants have the same ability. Two films were shown superimposed on the same screen, while one soundtrack was played in an attempt to influence the subjects' perceptual selection. When the films were separated during test periods, the infants looked mostly at the previously silent film, suggesting that it was novel for them. Control experiments showed that completely unfamiliar films elicited comparable novelty preferences in the same situation, that the soundtrack could also influence perceptual selection during side-by-side presentation of the same films, and that cross-modal habituation to the soundtrack alone could not account for the results. Perception is inherently selective, even in the first months of life.Cognitive Psychology 08/1981; 13(3):377-90. · 4.05 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Forty newborn human infants were repeatedly exposed to one of two visual stimuli: a 2 × 2 or 12 × 12 black and white checkerboard target until a set criterion of habituation was demonstrated, as measured by a decrement in visual fixation time. When the habituation criterion was reached, independent groups of Ss were presented with either the same target or the second target, to assess the effects of familiar and novel visual targets on recovery of the habituated response. Results indicated that Ss receiving the Same target to which they had been “familiarized” on the test trial showed no significant change in visual fixation time, while Ss receiving a novel target showed a significant increase in visual response. The current results suggest (1) that the visual response decrement displayed by the newborn can be attributed to a habituation rather than a “fatigue” process, and (2) that some infants, soon after birth, are capable of storing simple visual information as reflected in their ability to detect and respond to change in the immediate environment.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 05/1972; 13(2):339-49. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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