Immunotoxin construction with a ribosome-inactivating protein from barley.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from barley endosperm for use as an immunotoxin. This barley RIP is identical with the 30-kDa protein first reported by Coleman and Roberts [(1982) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 696, 239] and sequenced by Asano and co-workers [(1986) Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51, 75]. Use of the terms barley toxin I, II, and III is proposed to describe the three isoforms resolved by cation-exchange chromatography. An improved procedure for isolating the protein involving the steps of aqueous extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and cation-exchange HPLC is described. Barley toxin II retained activity after exposure to ca. 40% acetonitrile and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid or lyophilization. In a comparative study using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate assay, the protein was about 68% and 30% as potent as gelonin and ricin A-chain (RTA), respectively. Introduction of SH groups with 2-iminothiolane resulted in a substantial loss of activity as the number of thiol groups approached four. Therefore, it was necessary to limit thiolation to an average of one to two SH groups per toxin molecule. Anti-transferrin receptor-based immunotoxins constructed with RTA, gelonin, and barley toxin II exhibited comparable cytotoxicity against a human colon tumor cell line. We conclude that the availability of raw material, ease of purification, and stability of barley toxin II to lyophilization and denaturing conditions render it a suitable protein for the construction of immunotoxins.
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ABSTRACT: Immunotoxins and antibody-drug conjugates are protein-based drugs combining a target-specific binding domain with a cytotoxic domain. Such compounds are potentially therapeutic against diseases including cancer, and several clinical trials have shown encouraging results. Although the targeted elimination of malignant cells is an elegant concept, there are numerous practical challenges that limit conjugates' therapeutic use, including inefficient cellular uptake, low cytotoxicity, and off-target effects. During the preparation of immunoconjugates by chemical synthesis, the choice of the hinge component joining the two building blocks is of paramount importance: the conjugate must remain stable in vivo but must afford efficient release of the toxic moiety when the target is reached. Vast efforts have been made, and the present article reviews strategies employed in developing immunoconjugates, focusing on the evolution of chemical linkers.Toxins 07/2011; 3(7):848-83. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with chemotherapy relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies may be effectively treated with allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplants. However, many patients cannot be transplanted due to age, comorbidities, or lack of suitable donors. Further, a fraction of patients relapse post-transplant. Novel therapeutic agents that can kill multidrug-resistant malignant stem cells and are not myelosuppressive are needed. One class of such agents is immunotoxins. Immunotoxins consist of cell-selective ligands covalently linked to peptide toxins. The ligand delivers the molecule to specific cell surface receptors on malignant cells. The toxin triggers cell death either by reaching the cytosol and catalytically inactivating vital cell processes or by modifying the tumor cell surface membrane. We have synthesized immunotoxins for therapy of chemoresistant hematologic diseases. In this review, we will detail the synthesis of a number of these drugs and describe their preclinical and clinical activity. Several of these agents have shown dramatic antitumor effects in patients with hematologic neoplasms, and one immunotoxin has been approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Over the next several decades, a growing number of these agents should reach the clinic.Seminars in Oncology 09/2003; 30(4):545-57. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ineffectiveness of small molecule drugs against cancer has generated significant interest in more potent macromolecular agents. Gelonin, a plant-derived toxin that inhibits protein translation, has attracted much attention in this regard. Due to its inability to internalize into cells, however, gelonin exerts only limited tumoricidal effect. To overcome this cell membrane barrier, we modified gelonin, via both chemical conjugation and genetic recombination methods, with low molecular weight protamine (LMWP), a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) which was shown to efficiently ferry various cargos into cells. Results confirmed that gelonin-LMWP chemical conjugate (cG-L) and recombinant gelonin-LMWP chimera (rG-L) possessed N-glycosidase activity equivalent to that of unmodified recombinant gelonin (rGel); however, unlike rGel, both gelonin-LMWPs were able to internalize into cells. Cytotoxicity studies further demonstrated that cG-L and rG-L exhibited significantly improved tumoricidal effects, with IC50 values being 120-fold lower than that of rGel. Moreover, when tested against a CT26 s.c. xenograft tumor mouse model, significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed with rG-L doses as low as 2μg/tumor, while no detectable therapeutic effects were seen with rGel at 10-fold higher doses. Overall, this study demonstrated the potential of utilizing CPP-modified gelonin as a highly potent anticancer drug to overcome limitations of current chemotherapeutic agents.Journal of Controlled Release 08/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor