Addition of parenteral cefoxitin to regimen of oral antibiotics for elective colorectal operations. A randomized prospective study.

Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Lahey Clinic Medical Center, Burlington, Massachusetts 01805.
Annals of Surgery (Impact Factor: 7.19). 09/1990; 212(2):209-12.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The efficacy of cefoxitin, a perioperative parenteral antibiotic, combined with mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics to prevent wound infections and other septic complications in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations, was examined in a prospective randomized study. All 197 patients who completed the study received mechanical bowel preparation and oral neomycin/erythromycin base. In addition a perioperative parenteral antibiotic was given in three divided doses to 101 patients. The other 96 patients received no parenteral antibiotics. The overall incidence of intra-abdominal septic complications was 7.3% (7 of 96) in the control group (no cefoxitin) and 5% (5 of 101) in the treatment group (cefoxitin). This difference was not statistically significant. The incidence of abdominal wound infection was 14.6% in the control group and 5% in the treatment group, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.02). The addition of perioperative parenteral cefoxitin greatly reduced the incidence of wound infections in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations who had been prepared with mechanical bowel cleansing and oral antimicrobial agents.

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    ABSTRACT: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity following surgical procedures. Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) plays an important role in reducing SSIs and several Guidelines on AP were published in the last years. In this paper, we reviewed the controversial issues and the evidence from different Guidelines in selected surgical procedures such as hernia surgery, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, breast surgery, oral prophylaxis in colorectal surgery and cesarean section. We also discussed the role of metaanalysis as evidence for a Guideline and some general principles of AP as well as ambiguities given with the definition of SSI and the classification of intraoperative bacterial contamination.
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    ABSTRACT: Subcuticular closure provides a superior cosmetic result in clean wounds. The aim of this work was to investigate the safety in terms of postoperative infection and cosmetic effectiveness of subcuticular wound closure after elective colon cancer surgery in clean-contaminated wounds. Patients who underwent elective resection of colon cancer were randomized to interrupted subcuticular and interrupted transdermal suture groups. The large bowel was prepared by mechanical washout with polyethylene glycol. All patients received metronidazole and kanamycin orally and flomoxef sodium once parenterally for antimicrobial prophylaxis. The primary end point was the incidence of incisional surgical-site infections within 30 days after operation. We assessed noninferiority of subcuticular suture within a margin of 10%. Analysis was by intent-to-treat. Secondary objectives include comparison of wound closure time, comfort, and cosmesis of the scar and satisfaction of patients. This study was registered with UMIN-CTR, UMIN000003005. A total of 293 patients were randomized to the two groups. Incisional surgical-site infection rates were 11.0% (90% confidence interval 7.0-16.3%) for both groups. The relative risk of subcuticular suture was 1.00 (0.58-1.73, one-tail P = .57). Interrupted subcuticular suture was noninferior to interrupted transdermal suture (P = .0088). Throughout 6 months after operation, patients expressed a significant preference for the subcuticular suture technique, noting rapid relief from pain, decreased vascularity, and smaller width, although the procedure took twice as long. Subcuticular suture did not increase the incidence of wound complications in elective colon cancer operation. Patients preferred a technique of interrupted subcuticular closure, citing better cosmetic results, and less pain.
    Surgery 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2013.10.016 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infections at the surgical site continue to occur in as many as 20% of elective colon resection cases. Methods to reduce these infections are inconsistently applied. Surgical site infection (SSI) is the result of multiple interactive variables including the inoculum of bacteria that contaminate the site, the virulence of the contaminating microbes, and the local environment at the surgical site. These variables that promote infection are potentially offset by the effectiveness of the host defense. Reduction in the inoculum of bacteria is achieved by appropriate surgical site preparation, systemic preventive antibiotics, and use of mechanical bowel preparation in conjunction with the oral antibiotic bowel preparation. Intraoperative reduction of hematoma, necrotic tissue, foreign bodies, and tissue dead space will reduce infections. Enhancement of the host may be achieved by perioperative supplemental oxygenation, maintenance of normothermia, and glycemic control. These methods require additional research to identify optimum application. Uniform application of currently understood methods and continued research into new methods to reduce microbial contamination and enhancement of host responsiveness can lead to better outcomes.
    12/2013; 2013:896297. DOI:10.1155/2013/896297


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