The influence of postprandial-like plasma insulin levels on intestinal calcium absorption (CaA) was studied in 9 healthy men. On separate occasions, they received either an i.v. infusion of 40 mU/m2 minute synthetic human insulin as well as a variable glucose infusion in order to clamp the plasma glucose at the baseline level (= glucose clamp), or insulin- and glucose-free vehicle infusions (= vehicle). During these infusions, an oral load containing 326 mg Ca in the form of Ca chloride was administered and CaA was determined thereafter with a 47Ca/85Sr double tracer method. During glucose clamp, mean plasma insulin was 172 +/- (1 SEM) 10 as compared to 6 +/- 1 microU/ml during vehicle infusions. During the clamp, 3-hour cumulative CaA rose significantly by 14% as compared to vehicle (39.2 +/- 2.5 vs. 34.4 +/- 2%, P less than 0.02). AT the same time, serum potassium and phosphorus dropped significantly, whereas serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25(OH)2D levels were unchanged as compared to vehicle. The urinary excretions of potassium, sodium, and inorganic phosphorus, as well as the urinary specific activity of 47Ca, dropped significantly during glucose clamp, whereas the urinary excretion of cAMP was unchanged as compared to vehicle. The results suggest that, under the conditions of euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, insulin stimulates CaA of healthy humans in a PTH- and 1,25(OH)2D-independent manner. Insulin may thus possibly be regarded as a factor participating in the regulation of CaA in humans.
"Since the last NHANES analysis, however, prospective data from three large cohorts clearly demonstrate an increasing risk of incident stone disease with obesity, weight gain, and other measures related to the metabolic syndrome  . Physiologically, obesity has been linked to increased renal excretion of calcium and uric acid, as well as increased urine acidity, all of which increase the risk of stone formation      . For these reasons, we investigated potential associations between obesity and a history of kidney stones. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The last nationally representative assessment of kidney stone prevalence in the United States occurred in 1994. After a 13-yr hiatus, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reinitiated data collection regarding kidney stone history.
Describe the current prevalence of stone disease in the United States, and identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones.
A cross-sectional analysis of responses to the 2007-2010 NHANES (n=12 110). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Self-reported history of kidney stones. Percent prevalence was calculated and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones.
The prevalence of kidney stones was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1-9.5). Among men, the prevalence of stones was 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4-11.9), compared with 7.1% (95% CI, 6.4-7.8) among women. Kidney stones were more common among obese than normal-weight individuals (11.2% [95% CI, 10.0-12.3] compared with 6.1% [95% CI, 4.8-7.4], respectively; p<0.001). Black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals were less likely to report a history of stone disease than were white, non-Hispanic individuals (black, non-Hispanic: odds ratio [OR]: 0.37 [95% CI, 0.28-0.49], p<0.001; Hispanic: OR: 0.60 [95% CI, 0.49-0.73], p<0.001). Obesity and diabetes were strongly associated with a history of kidney stones in multivariable models. The cross-sectional survey design limits causal inference regarding potential risk factors for kidney stones.
Kidney stones affect approximately 1 in 11 people in the United States. These data represent a marked increase in stone disease compared with the NHANES III cohort, particularly in black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals. Diet and lifestyle factors likely play an important role in the changing epidemiology of kidney stones.
European Urology 03/2012; 62(1):160-5. DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2012.03.052 · 13.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We explored the effects of insulin on mineral homeostasis in five lean and six moderately obese nondiabetic premenopausal women. Serum and urine minerals were measured before and during the steady-state phase of a euglycemic insulin clamp. Each subject participated in two insulin clamp studies on separate days at insulin infusion rates of 10 and 40 mU/m2/min. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemia was associated with (1) a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion when expressed per minute with no change in total serum calcium; (2) a decrease in urine and serum phosphate; (3) a decrease in serum potassium with no change in urine potassium; and (4) no measurable effects on urine or serum sodium. At any given insulin level, the obese individuals excreted significantly more calcium, phosphate, and potassium per minute than lean controls. While insulin administration had no effect on serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) or vitamin D levels, baseline serum 1,25(OH)2D concentration was significantly higher and serum ultrafilterable calcium was significantly lower in obese subjects than in lean controls.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of environmental factors are under discussion as possibly implicated in the etiology of RCU. On the basis of data in the literature and our own results, we attempted a critical weighting up of the possible contributions of climate, pollution, stress, nutrition in general and especially oxalate and minerals in the nutrition. It was concluded that there is a need for more in-depth research into the response of the body to challenges from the environment, in particular nutrition.
Urological Research 02/1992; 20(1):72-83. DOI:10.1007/BF00294342 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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