Dissociative Symptoms in Relation to Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse

McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA 02178.
American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.3). 08/1990; 147(7):887-92. DOI: 10.1176/ajp.147.7.887
Source: PubMed


Studies have reported high rates of childhood abuse in people with psychiatric illness. This study examined whether dissociative symptoms are specific to patients with histories of abuse. Ninety-eight female psychiatric inpatients completed self-report instruments that focused on childhood history of trauma, dissociative symptoms, and psychiatric symptoms in general. Sixty-three percent of the subjects reported physical and/or sexual abuse. Eighty-three percent had dissociative symptom scores above the median score of normal adults, and 24% had scores at or above the median score of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Subjects with a history of childhood abuse reported higher levels of dissociative symptoms than those who did not.

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    • "First, a large body of evidence established the relationship between dissociation and trauma (e.g., Briere & Runtz, 1988; Boon & Draijer, 1993; Ferguson & Dacey, 1997; Mulder, Beautrais, Joyce, & Fergusson, 1998; Putnam, Guroff, Silberman, Barban, & Post, 1986). Trauma was found to contribute to the development of immediate and long-term symptoms of distress (Bryer, Nelson, Miller, & Krol, 1987; Chu & Dill, 1990; Kamsner & McCabe, 2000). Dissociation is perceived as one possible symptom of distress, as well as a cause of symptoms (Nijenhuis & Van der Hart, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: "Channeling" is a phenomenon in which people describe themselves as receiving messages from another personality or dimension of reality. Channeling is often regarded as dissociation, which is a disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception. This study explored the interface between channeling and dissociation through a phenomenological analysis. Qualitative data were obtained through interviews with 20 Israeli women who practice channeling. The analysis revealed 3 themes: dissociation, absorption, and control. The channelers' descriptions correspond with what is coined as "dissociative states" and enable an emic view of the etic definition of dissociation.
    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 07/2015; 63(3):346-364. DOI:10.1080/00207144.2015.1031555 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Çocukluk çağındaki olumsuz yaşantılar ile yetişkinlik döneminde ortaya çıkan psikolojik sorunların ilişkisine değinen birçok çalışmanın olduğu görülmektedir. Bu çalışmalar, genel olarak çocukluk çağı istismar yaşantılarının yetişkinlik döneminde depresyon (Chapman ve ark., 2004; Mullen, Martin, Anderson, Romans ve Herbison, 1996; Rich, Gingerich ve Rosen, 1997), kaygı bozuklukları (Mancini, Van Ameringen ve MacMillan, 1995; Safren, Gershuny, Marzol, Otto ve Pollack, 2002), dissosiyatif bozukluklar (Chu, Frey, Ganzel ve Matthews, 1999; Chu ve Dill, 1990; Çelikel ve Beşiroğlu, 2008), kişilik bozukluğu (Herman, Perry ve van der Kolk, 1989; Lohr, Westen ve Hill, 1990), aleksitimi (Kooiman ve ark., 2004) ve somatizasyon (Kinzl, Traweger ve Biebl, 1995; Spitzer, Barnow, Gau, Freyberger ve Joergen Grabe, 2008) ile ilişkili olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Çocukluk çağı istismar yaşantıları, yetişkinlik döneminde ortaya çıkan psikolojik sorunlar için önemli bir risk faktörü olmasına rağmen, bu yaşantılara sahip olan herkes psikolojik bir bozukluk geliştirmeyebilir. "
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    ABSTRACT: Özet Çocukluk çağı istismar yaşantıları, bireylerin kendi, diğerleri ve dünya hakkında olumsuz bilişsel tarzlar ya da şemalar geliştirmelerine neden olabilmektedir. Yaşamın erken dönemlerinde geliştirilen ya da içselleştirilen bu şe-malar, yetişkinlik döneminde çeşitli psikolojik sorunların ortaya çıkmasına zemin hazırlamakta ve psikolojik sağlığı olumsuz yönde etkilemektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, çocukluk çağı istismar yaşantıları ile genel psikolojik sağlık arasındaki ilişkide erken dönem uyum bozucu şemaların aracı rolünü incelemektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, 19-26 yaş arası 430 üniversite öğrencisine, Çocukluk Çağı Ruhsal Travma Ölçeği, Young Şema Ölçeği, Kısa Semptom En-vanteri ve bazı demografik bilgileri elde etmek amacıyla Demografik Bilgi Formu uygulanmıştır. Analiz sonuçları, çocukluk çağı istismar yaşantılarının her birinin genel psikolojik sağlıkla ilişkili olduğunu ve bu ilişkiye kopukluk ve zedelenmiş otonomi şema alanlarının tam aracılık ettiğini göstermiştir. İstismar yaşantılarının, türünün ne olduğu fark etmeksizin, kopukluk ve zedelenmiş otonomi şema alanlarında yer alan şemaların gelişmesine neden olabileceği ve bu şema alanlarının yetişkinlik dönemindeki psikolojik sorunlar için önemli bir bilişsel risk faktörü olabileceği görülmüştür. Abstract Experiences of childhood abuse can lead individuals to develop negative cognitive styles or schemas about their self, the others and the world. These schemas, which are developed or internalized in early stages of life, underlie various psychological problems and negatively affect psychological wellbeing in adulthood. The aim of the present study is to examine the mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the relationship between childhood abuse experiences and psychological wellbeing. For this purpose, Child Trauma Questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory and a questionnaire to collect data on their demographic characteristics were administered to 430 university students whose ages are 19-26. The results of the analyses showed that each of childhood abuse experiences were significantly related to psychological wellbeing and schema domains of disconnection/rejection and impaired autonomy fully mediated this relationship. Childhood abuse experiences, regardless of the type of these experiences, may lead to being developed early maladaptive schemas in schema domains of disconnection and impaired autonomy and these schema domains may be significant cognitive risk factor for psychological problems in adulthood.
    Turkish Journal of Psychology 07/2015; 30(75):47-59. · 0.16 Impact Factor
    • "This suggests that although most of the studies that evaluated childhood traumas particularly have focused on physical and sexual abuse, it is important to evaluate other childhood trauma types as well when considering IA. These findings are important because, directly or indirectly, childhood traumas can contribute to the formation of other psychopathologies such as depression, anxiety (Hovens et al., 2010), dissociative experiences or disorders (Chu and Dill, 1990; Gershuny and Thayer, 1999; Sar et al., 2006, 2007; Evren et al., 2007), BPF or BPD (Sar et al., 2006; Rademaker et al., 2008). Although the relationship of childhood traumas with substance addiction is well known in the literature (Zlotnick et al., 1997; Dube et al., 2006; Evren et al., 2006, 2007, 2011), there are few studies considering the association between childhood traumas and behavioral addictions such as gambling (Hodgins et al., 2010) and IA (Zhang et al., 2009; Yates et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.
    Psychiatry Research 11/2014; 219(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.02.032 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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