Cytotoxicity on human cells of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac Bt insecticidal toxins alone or with a glyphosate-based herbicide

University of Caen, Risk Pole MRSH-CNRS, Laboratory of Biochemistry EA2608, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032, Caen cedex, France; CRIIGEN, 40 rue de Monceau, 75008, Paris, France.
Journal of Applied Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.6). 01/2011; DOI: 10.1002/jat.2712
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    ABSTRACT: Public concern has been expressed on the use of genetically modified (gm) maize MON810 as animal feed and for human consumption. Several studies have been conducted on potential effects of feeding MON810 to livestock focusing on animal performance, animal health and fate of recombinant DNA or protein. Though, no information on effects of feeding gm maize on the gene expression level is available so far. From 2005 until 2007, a study with 36 lactating dairy cows fed gm maize (N = 18, MON810) or the near-isogenic counterpart (N = 18) was carried out, investigating the fate of recombi- nant DNA and protein. After a period of 25 months, ten cows fed transgenic maize and seven cows fed near-isogenic maize were slaughtered due to operational reasons. In a short follow-up study, tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and samples from liver were used for gene expression analysis of major genes of the inflammation, cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. Statistical analysis of the examined gene expression pattern revealed no significant difference in the gene expression profile of cows fed transgenic or near-isogenic feed ration. Therefore, it can be assumed that compared to near-isogenic feed, gm maize MON810 does not have any effect on major genes involved in apoptosis, inflammation and cell cycle in the gastrointestinal tract and in the liver of dairy cows.
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    ABSTRACT: In today’s rapidly merging technological realms, basic necessity and morality of the society is often overlooked. Genetic Engineering, a great leap in human understanding of life sciences with possible impacts on every facet of life, is one such advancement. A technology which tampers with the nature at the DNA level and has the prowess to shuffle genes between distantly or even non-related organisms is bound to have gravid moral implications. Tagged with ecological, economic and bio-safety issues, it is being termed as an imprecise tool, which may cause irreversible damages. Apparently, it has shaken the age old, deeply entrenched ideologies of people around the globe leading to a massive uproar in the society. This synthesis is an attempt to dissect and analyze the ethical and moral repercussions of Genetic Engineering with special reference to Indian scenario.
    Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 01/2013; 26(3). · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have contested the innocuousness of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry proteins to mammalian cells as well as to mammals microbiota. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of two Cry proteins, Cry8Ka5 (a novel mutant protein) and Cry1Ac (a widely distributed protein in GM crops). Evaluation of cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes was performed as well as hemolytic activity coupled with cellular membrane topography analysis in mammal erythrocytes. Effects of Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac upon Artemia sp. nauplii and upon bacteria and yeast growth were assessed. The toxins caused no significant effects on the viability (IC50 > 1,000 µg/mL) or to the cellular DNA integrity of lymphocytes (no effects at 1,000 µg/mL). The Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins did not cause severe damage to erythrocytes, neither with hemolysis (IC50 > 1,000 µg/mL) nor with alterations in the membrane. Likewise, the Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins presented high LC50 (755.11 and >1,000 µg/mL, resp.) on the brine shrimp lethality assay and showed no growth inhibition of the microorganisms tested (MIC > 1,000 µg/mL). This study contributed with valuable information on the effects of Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins on nontarget organisms, which reinforce their potential for safe biotechnological applications.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:810490. · 2.71 Impact Factor