Activation of D1 dopamine receptors stimulates the release of GABA in the basal ganglia of the rat.
ABSTRACT Here we have explored whether dopamine is able to modulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from striatal terminals to substantia nigra pars reticulata, entopeduncular nucleus, globus pallidus and caudate-putamen. The type of dopamine receptors involved was assessed by the blocking effect of either SCH 23390 (D1 antagonist) or (-)-sulpiride (D2 antagonist) of the dopamine effect. Dopamine stimulated (EC50 3.2 microM) the depolarization-induced release of [3H]GABA from slices isolated from all of the above mentioned nuclei. SCH 23390 dose-dependently blocked the dopamine stimulation, but (-)-sulpiride did not show any blocking effect. The results suggest that dopamine via D1 receptors modulates the release of GABA from striatal GABAergic terminals.
- SourceAvailable from: Jose Bargas[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is no hypothesis to explain how direct and indirect basal ganglia (BG) pathways interact to reach a balance during the learning of motor procedures. Both pathways converge in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) carrying the result of striatal processing. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity in striatonigral (direct pathway) synapses are not known. Here, we used electrophysiological techniques to describe dopamine D(1)-receptor-mediated facilitation in striatonigral synapses in the context of its interaction with glutamatergic inputs, probably coming from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) (indirect pathway) and describe a striatonigral cannabinoid-dependent long-term synaptic depression (LTD). It is shown that striatonigral afferents exhibit D(1)-receptor-mediated facilitation of synaptic transmission when NMDA receptors are inactive, a phenomenon that changes to cannabinoid-dependent LTD when NMDA receptors are active. This interaction makes SNr neurons become coincidence-detector switching ports: When inactive, NMDA receptors lead to a dopamine-dependent enhancement of direct pathway output, theoretically facilitating movement. When active, NMDA receptors result in LTD of the same synapses, thus decreasing movement. We propose that SNr neurons, working as logical gates, tune the motor system to establish a balance between both BG pathways, enabling the system to choose appropriate synergies for movement learning and postural support.Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) 12/2011; 18(12):764-73. · 4.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nanomedicine has focused on targeted neurotrophic gene delivery to the brain as a strategy to stop and reverse neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Because of improved transfection ability, synthetic nanocarriers have become candidates for neurotrophic therapy. Neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex is a "Trojan horse" synthetic nanocarrier system that enters dopaminergic neurons through NTS receptor internalization to deliver a genetic cargo. The success of preclinical studies with different neurotrophic genes supports the possibility of using NTS-polyplex in nanomedicine. In this review, we describe the mechanism of NTS-polyplex transfection. We discuss the concept that an effective neurotrophic therapy requires a simultaneous effect on the axon terminals and soma of the remaining dopaminergic neurons. We also discuss the future of this strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: This review paper focuses on nanomedicine-based treatment of Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative condition with existing symptomatic but no curative treatment. Neurotensin-polyplex is a synthetic nanocarrier system that enables delivery of genetic cargo to dopaminergic neurons via NTS receptor internalization.Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 03/2012; 8(7):1052-69. · 6.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we found that PDE10A inhibitor papaverine, alone or in combination with the D1 receptor agonist SKF38393, did not change spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) frequency or amplitude in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr). An increase in frequency, but not in amplitude, of sIPSCs was only observed when SKF38393 and PDE10A inhibitors were associated to perfusion with higher extracellular K(+). On the other hand, the amplitude of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) of the striato-nigral projection to SNpr, was increased in response to co-administration of SKF38393 and papaverine in normal extracellular potassium. Of note, both an increase in sIPSCs frequency and eIPSC amplitude could be obtained either by a robust stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) with forskolin (10 μM) or by a lower dose of forskolin (1 μM) associated to PDE inhibition. We next investigated the effects produced by dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum. Under this condition, SKF38393 alone increased either sIPSCs frequency and eIPSC amplitude. In addition, in the striatum of DA-depleted mice we found reduced PDE10A levels and higher cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in response to D1 receptor stimulation. In accordance with these biochemical data, perfusion with papaverine had no effect on the SKF38393-induced changes of IPSCs in slices of DA-depleted mice. These findings reveal a dynamic interplay between PDE10A activity, level of neuronal network depolarization and degree of dopaminergic tone in the ability of D1 receptors to facilitate the GABAergic transmission to SNpr neurons from the direct nigro-striatal pathway.Neuropharmacology 08/2013; · 4.11 Impact Factor