Localization of L-glutamate binding sites in chick brain by quantitative autoradiography.
ABSTRACT Quantitative autoradiography was used for the localization of L-[3H]glutamate binding sites in chick brain. The highest concentration of these sites was observed in the molecular layer of cerebellum. High concentrations were also observed in the hippocampus, area parahippocampalis, neostriatum, neostriatum intermedium and hyperstriatum ventrale. In most areas binding of L-[3H]glutamate was increased when incubation was done in chloride-containing medium. This increase was statistically significant in only few of these areas.
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ABSTRACT: Activation of NMDA receptors by glutamate is particularly important in the initial stages of memory consolidation. Memantine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, ameliorates memory impairment under certain circumstances, despite blocking the activation of NMDA receptors. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that memantine can improve memory deficits induced by isolation stress in day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) trained in a one-trial taste-avoidance task. Three experiments assessed the effects of memantine at different concentrations and in combination with isolation stress. The results of Experiment 1 indicate that, under normal, non-stressed conditions, memory in control animals is strong and 15.0 mM memantine impairs memory, similar to that seen in many studies of the effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on learning. However, the results of Experiments 2 and 3 showed that, when chicks were exposed to isolation stress during the pre-training period, memory formation for saline-injected control animals was impaired and 5.0 mM memantine significantly improved memory in an inverted U-shaped dose response function. The current results extend the findings that memantine can ameliorate memory impairment and supports the hypothesis that memantine, despite its action to reduce NMDA receptor activity, can facilitate normalized memory acquisition.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 04/2010; 95(2):203-8. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Organization of the fibre connections in the chick nucleus rotundus (Rt) was investigated by an axonal tracing method using wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). After an injection of WGA-HRP into the Rt, labelled neurones were observed in the striatum griseum centrale (SGC) in both sides of the tectum (TO) and in the ipsilateral nucleus subpretectalis/nucleus interstito-pretecto-subpretectalis (SP/IPS). Labelled fibres and terminals were also found in the ipsilateral ectostriatum (Ect). These fibre connections were topographically organized rostrocaudally. In the TO-Rt projection, the rostral and the dorsocaudal parts of the Rt received afferents from the superficial part of the SGC, the middle part of the Rt received afferents from the intermediate part of the SGC, and the ventrocaudal part of the Rt received mainly fibres from the deep part of the SGC. These topographic projections were accompanied by a considerable number of diffuse projections to the thalamic regions surrounding the Rt. In addition, the rostral and middle caudal parts of the Rt received afferents from the lateral and medial parts of the SP/IPS, respectively, and respective parts of the Rt sent efferents to the lateral and medial parts of the Ect.Anantomia Histologia Embryologia 01/2004; 32(6):335-40. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The avian nidopallium caudolaterale is a multimodal area in the caudal telencephalon that is apparently not homologous to the mammalian prefrontal cortex but serves comparable functions. Here we analyzed binding-site densities of glutamatergic AMPA, NMDA and kainate receptors, GABAergic GABA(A), muscarinic M(1), M(2) and nicotinic (nACh) receptors, noradrenergic α(1) and α(2), serotonergic 5-HT(1A) and dopaminergic D(1)-like receptors using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. We compared the receptor architecture of the pigeons' nidopallial structures, in particular the NCL, with cortical areas Fr2 and Cg1 in rats and prefrontal area BA10 in humans. Our results confirmed that the relative ratios of multiple receptor densities across different nidopallial structures (their "receptor fingerprints") were very similar in shape; however, the absolute binding densities (the "size" of the fingerprints) differed significantly. This finding enables a delineation of the avian NCL from surrounding structures and a further parcellation into a medial and a lateral part as revealed by differences in densities of nACh, M(2), kainate, and 5-HT(1A) receptors. Comparisons of the NCL with the rat and human frontal structures showed differences in the receptor distribution, particularly of the glutamate receptors, but also revealed highly conserved features like the identical densities of GABA(A), M(2), nACh and D(1)-like receptors. Assuming a convergent evolution of avian and mammalian prefrontal areas, our results support the hypothesis that specific neurochemical traits provide the molecular background for higher order processes such as executive functions. The differences in glutamate receptor distributions may reflect species-specific adaptations.Brain Structure and Function 02/2011; 216(3):239-54. · 7.84 Impact Factor