Stretching as an alternative relaxation training procedure

Wheaton College, نورتون، ماساچوست, Massachusetts, United States
Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.23). 04/1990; 21(1):29-38. DOI: 10.1016/0005-7916(90)90046-N
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this program of research was to explore the use of muscle stretching procedures in relaxation training with a clinical population. In the first controlled study, stretching exercises for four muscle groups (obicularis occuli, sternocleidomastoid/trapezius, triceps/pectoralis major, and forearm/wrist flexors) were prepared. A group of people using these procedures (SR, N = 8) was compared to a group using the Bernstein and Borkovec (1973) tense-release (TR; N = 8) techniques for those same muscle groups, as well as compared to an appropriate group of controls (WL; N = 8). Assessment of physiological (multi-site EMG) and subjective (emotions, muscle tension, and self-efficacy) responses showed that persons in the SR displayed less sadness, less self-reported muscle tension at four sites, and less EMG activity on the r.masseter than persons in the TR group. In the second study, 15 subjects were administered an expanded version of the SR relaxation procedures. Results showed that all subjects reported significant decreases in self-reported levels of muscle tension; muscle tension responders showed lowered trapezius EMG and respiration rates and cardiovascular responders showed lowered diastolic blood pressure. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of relaxation procedures based primarily on muscle stretching exercises for lowering subjective and objective states of arousal.

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    • "In a study by Carlson et al,[19] stretching displayed reduction in sadness; EMG activity at the muscles stretched and self-reported muscle tension. Thus, indicating promotion of relaxation and well-being. "
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    ABSTRACT: Amongst various modalities of post operative rehabilitation in a total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, this study focuses on evaluating the effect of additional yoga therapy on functional outcome of TKR patients. A comparative study was done to compare the effects of conventional physiotherapy and additional yoga asanas, on 56 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty due to osteoarthritis. After obtaining written informed consent, the patients were alternately assigned to two groups: Conventional and experimental. Baseline WOMAC scores for pain and stiffness were taken on third post operative day. The subjects in conventional group received physiotherapy rehabilitation program of Sancheti Institute where the study was conducted, the experimental group received additional modified yoga asanas once daily by the therapist. After discharge from the hospital, patients were provided with written instructions and photographs of the asanas, two sets of WOMAC questionnaire with stamped and addressed envelopes and were instructed to perform yoga asanas 3 days/week. Subjects filled the questionnaire after 6 weeks and 3 months from the day of surgery and mailed back. The primary outcome measure was WOMAC questionnaire which consists of 24 questions, each corresponding to a visual analog scale, designed to measure patient's perception of pain, stiffness and function. The results suggest that there was a significant change (P<0.05) for all the groups for pain, stiffness and function subscales of WOMAC scale. The pain and stiffness was found to be less in experimental group receiving additional yoga therapy than in conventional group on 3(rd) post operative day, 6 weeks and 3 months after the surgery. A combination of physiotherapy and yoga asana protocol works better than only physiotherapy protocol. Larger and blinded study is needed.
    International Journal of Yoga 07/2012; 5(2):118-22. DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98226
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    • "The range of motions achieved by stretching persists even after manual therapy, which indicates permanent adaptation of muscles [29] research results have revealed that those adaptive changes occur already on Messenger rNA level [30]. Lower level of muscle tautness was revealed by electromyography (EMG) record, which leads to the conclusion that stretching is a very effective muscle relaxation technique, including masseter muscles [31] [32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Myofascial pain located in the area of the head is a very common disease of the stomatognathic system. The fact that the mechanism of its development is very complex may cause a variety of problems in diagnosis and therapy. Patients diagnosed with this type of affliction usually need a variety of different therapies. Massage therapy can be a significant method of treatment of myofascial pain. That kind of therapy is clinically useful as it improves the subjective and objective health status of the patient and is easy to follow. The aim of this paper is to show the physiological effect and different massage techniques applied in myofascial pain treatment. The authors would also like to present the protocol for dealing with patients who demand that kind of therapy for masseter and temporal muscles.
    Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine 11/2011; 21(5):681-5. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    • "Skeletal muscle stretching is a unique method for relaxation [20-22]. The effect of hypnotherapy on IBS has been well documented [23], but specific psychotherapy usually needs long-range training for therapists at much cost. "
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    ABSTRACT: Psychophysiological processing has been reported to play a crucial role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but there has been no report on modulation of the stress marker chromogranin A (CgA) resulting from muscle stretching. We hypothesized that abdominal muscle stretching as a passive operation would have a beneficial effect on a biochemical index of the activity of the sympathetic/adrenomedullary system (salivary CgA) and anxiety. Fifteen control and eighteen untreated IBS subjects underwent experimental abdominal muscle stretching for 4 min. Subjects relaxed in a supine position with their knees fully flexed while their pelvic and trunk rotation was passively and slowly moved from 0 degrees of abdominal rotation to about 90 degrees or the point where the subject reported feeling discomfort.Changes in the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale (GSRS), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), ordinate scale and salivary CgA levels were compared between controls and IBS subjects before and after stretching. A three-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with period (before vs. after) as the within-subject factor and group (IBS vs. Control), and sex (men vs. female) as the between-subject factors was carried out on salivary CgA. CgA showed significant interactions between period and groups (F[1, 31] = 4.89, p = 0.03), and between groups and sex (F[1, 31] = 4.73, p = 0.03). Interactions between period and sex of CgA secretion were not shown (F[1, 3] = 2.60, p = 0.12). At the baseline, salivary CgA in IBS subjects (36.7 +/- 5.9 pmol/mg) was significantly higher than in controls (19.9 +/- 5.5 pmol/mg, p < 0.05). After the stretching, salivary CgA significantly decreased in the IBS group (25.5 +/- 4.5 pmol/mg), and this value did not differ from that in controls (18.6 +/- 3.9 pmol/mg). Our results suggest the possibility of improving IBS pathophysiology by passive abdominal muscle stretching as indicated by CgA, a biochemical index of the activity of the sympathetic/adrenomedullary system.
    BioPsychoSocial Medicine 12/2008; 2:20. DOI:10.1186/1751-0759-2-20
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