Muscle stretching as an alternative relaxation training procedure.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this program of research was to explore the use of muscle stretching procedures in relaxation training with a clinical population. In the first controlled study, stretching exercises for four muscle groups (obicularis occuli, sternocleidomastoid/trapezius, triceps/pectoralis major, and forearm/wrist flexors) were prepared. A group of people using these procedures (SR, N = 8) was compared to a group using the Bernstein and Borkovec (1973) tense-release (TR; N = 8) techniques for those same muscle groups, as well as compared to an appropriate group of controls (WL; N = 8). Assessment of physiological (multi-site EMG) and subjective (emotions, muscle tension, and self-efficacy) responses showed that persons in the SR displayed less sadness, less self-reported muscle tension at four sites, and less EMG activity on the r.masseter than persons in the TR group. In the second study, 15 subjects were administered an expanded version of the SR relaxation procedures. Results showed that all subjects reported significant decreases in self-reported levels of muscle tension; muscle tension responders showed lowered trapezius EMG and respiration rates and cardiovascular responders showed lowered diastolic blood pressure. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of relaxation procedures based primarily on muscle stretching exercises for lowering subjective and objective states of arousal.
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ABSTRACT: Outcome studies concerned with the efficacy of muscle versus cognitive relaxation procedures in reducing blood pressure remain inconclusive because of inappropriate controls and confounded relaxation instructions. In order to better compare the potency of these two procedures 30 borderline hypertensive patients were assigned to muscle tense release, muscle stretch release and cognitive relaxation procedures, placebo attention and test only control conditions to form groups orthogonally matched for pre-treatment systolic blood pressure, sex and age. Most importantly, the relaxation procedures were designed to be distinctive for each condition so that cognitive and muscle procedures were not confounded. Both cognitive and muscle relaxation procedures were superior in reducing blood pressure when compared to controls; the muscle tense release procedure proved most effective. These results dispell the common assumption that an amalgam of these two components is most effective and support previous findings that muscularly oriented relaxation methods seem more effective in treating somatic problems. The practical and theoretical significance of emphasizing a muscle relaxation approach in clinical practice and in further outcome studies are discussed.Behaviour Research and Therapy 11/1996; 34(10):821-6. DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(96)00062-9 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Amongst various modalities of post operative rehabilitation in a total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, this study focuses on evaluating the effect of additional yoga therapy on functional outcome of TKR patients. A comparative study was done to compare the effects of conventional physiotherapy and additional yoga asanas, on 56 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty due to osteoarthritis. After obtaining written informed consent, the patients were alternately assigned to two groups: Conventional and experimental. Baseline WOMAC scores for pain and stiffness were taken on third post operative day. The subjects in conventional group received physiotherapy rehabilitation program of Sancheti Institute where the study was conducted, the experimental group received additional modified yoga asanas once daily by the therapist. After discharge from the hospital, patients were provided with written instructions and photographs of the asanas, two sets of WOMAC questionnaire with stamped and addressed envelopes and were instructed to perform yoga asanas 3 days/week. Subjects filled the questionnaire after 6 weeks and 3 months from the day of surgery and mailed back. The primary outcome measure was WOMAC questionnaire which consists of 24 questions, each corresponding to a visual analog scale, designed to measure patient's perception of pain, stiffness and function. The results suggest that there was a significant change (P<0.05) for all the groups for pain, stiffness and function subscales of WOMAC scale. The pain and stiffness was found to be less in experimental group receiving additional yoga therapy than in conventional group on 3(rd) post operative day, 6 weeks and 3 months after the surgery. A combination of physiotherapy and yoga asana protocol works better than only physiotherapy protocol. Larger and blinded study is needed.International Journal of Yoga 07/2012; 5(2):118-22. DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.98226
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ABSTRACT: Psychophysiological processing has been reported to play a crucial role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but there has been no report on modulation of the stress marker chromogranin A (CgA) resulting from muscle stretching. We hypothesized that abdominal muscle stretching as a passive operation would have a beneficial effect on a biochemical index of the activity of the sympathetic/adrenomedullary system (salivary CgA) and anxiety. Fifteen control and eighteen untreated IBS subjects underwent experimental abdominal muscle stretching for 4 min. Subjects relaxed in a supine position with their knees fully flexed while their pelvic and trunk rotation was passively and slowly moved from 0 degrees of abdominal rotation to about 90 degrees or the point where the subject reported feeling discomfort.Changes in the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale (GSRS), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), ordinate scale and salivary CgA levels were compared between controls and IBS subjects before and after stretching. A three-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with period (before vs. after) as the within-subject factor and group (IBS vs. Control), and sex (men vs. female) as the between-subject factors was carried out on salivary CgA. CgA showed significant interactions between period and groups (F[1, 31] = 4.89, p = 0.03), and between groups and sex (F[1, 31] = 4.73, p = 0.03). Interactions between period and sex of CgA secretion were not shown (F[1, 3] = 2.60, p = 0.12). At the baseline, salivary CgA in IBS subjects (36.7 +/- 5.9 pmol/mg) was significantly higher than in controls (19.9 +/- 5.5 pmol/mg, p < 0.05). After the stretching, salivary CgA significantly decreased in the IBS group (25.5 +/- 4.5 pmol/mg), and this value did not differ from that in controls (18.6 +/- 3.9 pmol/mg). Our results suggest the possibility of improving IBS pathophysiology by passive abdominal muscle stretching as indicated by CgA, a biochemical index of the activity of the sympathetic/adrenomedullary system.BioPsychoSocial Medicine 12/2008; 2:20. DOI:10.1186/1751-0759-2-20