Why patients smoke.

Hospital & community psychiatry 10/1990; 41(9):1027-8. DOI: 10.1176/ps.41.9.1027
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated, due to the complexity of human illness/wellbeing, the emerging evidence encourages a more integrative approach for depression, and an acknowledgment that lifestyle modification should be a routine part of treatment and preventative efforts.
    BMC Psychiatry 04/2014; 14(1):107. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-14-107 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compared to smokers in the general population, smokers with schizophrenia smoke more cigarettes per day and have higher nicotine dependence and biochemical indicators of nicotine intake. They also have more intense smoking topography and greater positive smoking expectancies. Little is known about the relationship between smoking and schizotypy, defined as the personality organization reflecting a vulnerability to schizophrenia-spectrum pathology. This study assessed schizotypy symptoms, smoking characteristics and behaviors, and smoking expectancies in young adults with psychometrically-defined schizotypy and demographically-matched controls without schizotypy. Smokers with schizotypy had higher nicotine dependence and smoked more cigarettes per week compared to control smokers. They were also more likely to endorse greater positive consequences (i.e., improved state enhancement, stimulation, social facilitation, taste/sensorimotor manipulation, reduced negative affect and boredom) and fewer negative consequences of smoking. Smokers with schizotypy and control smokers did not differ on smoking topography or carbon monoxide levels. This is the first known study to investigate relationships between these smoking-related variables in smokers with schizotypy. Individuals with schizotypy possessed certain smoking-related characteristics and smoking expectancies similar to those with schizophrenia. This offers preliminary insight into unique smoking-related factors among individuals with schizotypy and highlights the importance of continued research in this area.
    12/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.11.032
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    ABSTRACT: management of unipolar depression. Objective: To be used in conjunction with 'Pharmacological management of unipolar depression' [Malhi et al. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2013;127(Suppl. 443):6–23] and 'Psychological management of unipolar depression' [Lampe et al. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2013;127(Suppl. 443): 24–37]. To provide clinically relevant recommendations for lifestyle modifications in depression, derived from a literature review. Method: A search of pertinent literature was conducted up to August 2012 in the area of lifestyle factors and depression. A narrative review was then conducted. Results: There is evidence that level of physical activity plays a role in the risk of depression, and there is a large and validated evidence base for exercise as a therapeutic modality. Smoking and alcohol and substance misuse appear to be independent risk factors for depression, while the new epidemiological evidence supports the contention that diet is a risk factor for depression; good quality diets appear protective and poor diets increase risk. Conclusion: Lifestyle modification, with a focus on exercise, diet, smoking and alcohol, may be of substantial value in reducing the burden of depression in individuals and the community. Clinical recommendations • Lifestyle factors, such as poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, smoking and substance abuse, contribute to depression risk, and these factors are interactive and mutually reinforcing. • Exercise has a validated evidence base as a therapeutic modality. • While there is yet little trial evidence to support smoking cessation or dietary advice in depression management, the precautionary principle would support both.
    Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum 06/2013; 443. DOI:10.1111/acps.12124