Prevention of nosocomial lung infection in ventilated patients: use of an antimicrobial pharyngeal nonabsorbable paste.

University of Murcia, Murcia, Murcia, Spain
Critical Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 6.15). 12/1990; 18(11):1239-42. DOI: 10.1097/00003246-199011000-00011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A comparative, prospective study was made of the incidence of infection in the lower airway (purulent tracheobronchitis and pneumonia) in long-term patients who were mechanically ventilated due to respiratory failure of noninfectious origin. Twenty-eight patients were randomly allocated into a study group (A, n = 13) in which a nonabsorbable paste containing 2% tobramycin, 2% amphotericin B, and 2% polymyxin E was administered locally to decontaminate the oropharynx, and a control group (B, n = 15) in which a paste without antibiotics was also applied to the oropharynx. We studied the effectiveness of the prophylactic technique in decontaminating the oropharynx and trachea of organisms potentially pathogenic for the respiratory system. Decontamination was successful in ten of 13 patients in group A vs. one of 15 patients in group B (p less than .001). The results demonstrated a lower rate of infection in the lower respiratory tract in the study group (three patients with tracheobronchitis and no pneumonias) than in the control group (three patients with tracheobronchitis and 11 with pneumonia), the difference between both being highly significant (p less than .001). Two (15%) patients in group B developed sepsis of pulmonary origin. None of the patients on prophylactic treatment developed this complication. Although the overall mortality was similar in both groups (group A, 30% vs. group B, 33%), we believe that infection contributed to a great extent to the death of two of five patients in group B. We conclude that nosocomial pneumonia, which is a frequent complication in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation, could be prevented by local application of nonabsorbable antibiotics to the oropharynx.

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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionAmong methods for preventing pneumonia and possibly also bacteremia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, Selective Digestive Decontamination (SDD) appears most effective within randomized concurrent controlled trials (RCCT¿s) although more recent trials have been cluster randomized. However, of the SDD components, whether protocolized parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis (PPAP) is required, and whether the topical antibiotic actually presents a contextual hazard, remain unresolved. The objective here is to compare the bacteremia rates and patterns of isolates in SDD-RCCT¿s versus the broader evidence base.Methods Bacteremia incidence proportion data were extracted from component (control and intervention) groups decanted from studies investigating antibiotic (SDD) or non-antibiotic methods of VAP prevention and summarized using random effects meta-analysis of study and group level data. A reference category of groups derived from purely observational studies without any prevention method under study provided a benchmark incidence.ResultsWithin SDD RCCTs, the mean bacteremia incidence among concurrent component groups not exposed to PPAP (27 control; 17.1%; 13.1-22.1% and 12 intervention groups; 16.2%; 9.1-27.3%) is double that of the benchmark bacteremia incidence derived from 39 benchmark groups (8.3; 6.8-10.2%) and also 20 control groups from studies of non-antibiotic methods (7.1%; 4.8 ¿ 10.5). There is a selective increase in coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) but not in Pseudomonas aeruginosa among bacteremia isolates within control groups of SDD-RCCT¿s versus benchmark groups with data available.Conclusion The topical antibiotic component of SDD presents a major contextual hazard toward bacteremia against which the PPAP component partially mitigates.
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