Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1986: report of a multistate surveillance study. The Bacterial Meningitis Study Group.

Meningitis Branch Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia 30333.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.78). 01/1991; 162(6):1316-23. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/162.6.1316
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A prospective, laboratory-based surveillance project obtained accurate data on meningitis in a population of 34 million people during 1986. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis (45%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (18%), and Neisseria meningitidis (14%). Rates of H. influenzae meningitis varied significantly by region, from 1.9/100,000 in New Jersey to 4.0/100,000 in Washington state. The overall case fatality rates for meningitis were lower than those reported in several studies from the early 1970s, suggesting that improvements in early detection and antibiotic treatment may have occurred since that time. Concurrent surveillance was also performed for all invasive disease due to the five most common causes of bacterial meningitis. Serotypes of group B streptococcus other than type III caused more than half of neonatal group B streptococcal disease and mortality, suggesting that an optimal vaccine preparation must be multivalent. Of the organisms evaluated, group B streptococcus was the second most common cause of invasive disease in persons greater than 5 years old.

  • Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2000; 32(6):693-696. · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The brain is well protected against microbial invasion by cellular barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In addition, cells within the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of producing an immune response against invading pathogens. Nonetheless, a range of pathogenic microbes make their way to the CNS, and the resulting infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Bacteria, amoebae, fungi, and viruses are capable of CNS invasion, with the latter using axonal transport as a common route of infection. In this review, we compare the mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens reach the CNS and infect the brain. In particular, we focus on recent data regarding mechanisms of bacterial translocation from the nasal mucosa to the brain, which represents a little explored pathway of bacterial invasion but has been proposed as being particularly important in explaining how infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei can result in melioidosis encephalomyelitis.
    Clinical Microbiology Reviews 10/2014; 27(4):691-726. · 16.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have done an epidemiological and clinical study on H.I. meningitis in the pediatric department of Sanou Souro Hospital in bobo-Ddioulasso (Burkina Faso). This study lasted 5 years ( 199986-1990) and include 514 cases of purulent meningitis in which there where 113 cases of H.I. We can conclude that : The H.I.B meningitis has an endemic character in our contries ; H.I. accounts for 36,9% the isolates germs in the cerebrospinal fluid, the second most frequently place in bacterial meningitis. The average age is 9 months and peak of frequency is observed between 3 and 10 months. The lethality is 21,7% and resulting damage is noted in 14,1% of case. These data were determinant to measure out the natural immunity to Haemophilus iInflluenzae. Population and methods. –Blood samples (5ml) where taken from 89 women at the time of delivery and from the cord of their babies. Blood sample were also taken from 290 infants and children, distributed into nine subgroups as a function of their age. Children with proteincalorie malnutrition and immune deficiency were excluded from the study. Antibodies against H.I. were measured by Elisa and radioimmunologic methods. Blood concentration of 0.15pg/ml or more were considered to be protective. Results. –All the blood sammples of mothers and cords contained protective lovels of antibodies. No infant in the subgroup 12-23 months had protective levels of antibodies. The incidence of Haemophilus meningitis was correlated with the absence of antibodies. Conclusion.- Maternal immunity is gradually lost by babies during their first 2 months of life, earlier than developed countries. Early vaccination at 3 months of age, is mandatory. KEY-WORDS : Meningitis-Haemophilus Inflenzae-Epidemiology-Natural Immunity Burkina Faso
    Le Mali médical 01/2004; 29(3-4):44-47.