Bacterial Meningitis in the United States, 1986: Report of a Multistate Surveillance Study

Meningitis Branch Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia 30333.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 01/1991; 162(6):1316-23. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/162.6.1316
Source: PubMed


A prospective, laboratory-based surveillance project obtained accurate data on meningitis in a population of 34 million people during 1986. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis (45%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (18%), and Neisseria meningitidis (14%). Rates of H. influenzae meningitis varied significantly by region, from 1.9/100,000 in New Jersey to 4.0/100,000 in Washington state. The overall case fatality rates for meningitis were lower than those reported in several studies from the early 1970s, suggesting that improvements in early detection and antibiotic treatment may have occurred since that time. Concurrent surveillance was also performed for all invasive disease due to the five most common causes of bacterial meningitis. Serotypes of group B streptococcus other than type III caused more than half of neonatal group B streptococcal disease and mortality, suggesting that an optimal vaccine preparation must be multivalent. Of the organisms evaluated, group B streptococcus was the second most common cause of invasive disease in persons greater than 5 years old.

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    • "This entity occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients, newborns, and elderly individuals [4], although previously healthy adults can be affected as well [5]. Even with appropriate antibiotic therapy, this entity has a high morbidity and mortality (24%-62%) [2-4,6-8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes is the third most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis. The aim of this study is to know the incidence and risk factors associated with development of acute community-acquired Lm meningitis in adult patients and to evaluate the clinical features, management, and outcome in this prospective case series. A descriptive, prospective, and multicentric study carried out in 9 hospitals in the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) over a 39-month period. All adults patients admitted to the participating hospitals with the diagnosis of acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis (Ac-ABM) were included in this study. All these cases were diagnosed on the basis of a compatible clinical picture and a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture or blood culture. The patients were followed up until death or discharge from hospital. Two hundred and seventy-eight patients with Ac-ABM were included. Forty-six episodes of Lm meningitis were identified in 46 adult patients. In the multivariate analysis only age (OR 1.026; 95% CI 1.00-1.05; p = 0.042), immunosuppression (OR 2.520; 95% CI 1.05-6.00; p = 0.037), and CSF/blood glucose ratio (OR 39.42; 95% CI 4.01-387.50; p = 0.002) were independently associated with a Lm meningitis. The classic triad of fever, neck stiffness and altered mental status was present in 21 (49%) patients, 32% had focal neurological findings at presentation, 12% presented cerebellum dysfunction, and 9% had seizures. Twenty-nine (68%) patients were immunocompromised. Empirical antimicrobial therapy was intravenous ampicillin for 34 (79%) of 43 patients, in 11 (32%) of them associated to aminoglycosides. Definitive ampicillin plus gentamicin therapy was significantly associated with unfavourable outcome (67% vs 28%; p = 0.024) and a higher mortality (67% vs 32%; p = 0.040).The mortality rate was 28% (12 of 43 patients) and 5 of 31 (16.1%) surviving patients developed adverse clinical outcome. Elderly or immunocompromised patients, and a higher CSF/blood glucose ratio in patients with Ac-ABM must alert clinicians about Lm aetiology. Furthermore, we observed a high incidence of acute community-acquired Lm meningitis in adults and the addition of aminoglycosides to treatment should be avoid in order to improve the patients' outcome. Nevertheless, despite developments in intensive care and antimicrobial therapy, this entity is still a serious disease that carries high morbidity and mortality rates.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 11/2010; 10(1):324. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-10-324 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    • "Routine surveillance systems differ according to the different regions. In the developed world they are mostly based on mandatory notifications of infectious diseases and more recently on laboratory [8-11], while in developing countries are based on case reports and epidemics notifications [12], as well as on hospital sentinel surveillance [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Community acquired Bacterial Meningitis (BM) remains a serious threat to global health. Cuban surveillance system for BM allowed to characterize the main epidemiological features of this group of diseases, as well as to assess the association of some variables with mortality. Results of the BM surveillance in Cuba are presented in this paper. A follow up of BM cases reported to the Institute "Pedro Kourí" by the National Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance System from 1998 to 2007 was completed. Incidence and case-fatality rate (CFR) were calculated. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to elucidate associated factors to mortality comparing death versus survival. Relative Risk (RR) or odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI 95%) were estimated, using either a Chi-squared Test or Fisher's Exact Test as appropriate. A Holt-Winters model was used to assess seasonality. 4798 cases of BM (4.3 per 100,000 population) were reported, with a decreasing trend of the incidence. Highest incidence was observed in infants and elderly. Overall CFR reached 24.1% affecting mostly older adults. S. pneumoniae (23.6%), N. meningitidis (8.2%) and H. influenzae type b (6.0%) were the main causative agents. Males predominate in the incidence. Highest incidence and CFR were mainly clustered in the centre of the island. The univariate analysis did not show association between delayed medical consultation (RR = 1.20; CI = 1.07-1.35) or delayed hospitalization (RR = 0.98; CI = 0.87-1.11) and the fatal outcome. Logistic regression model showed association of categories housewife, pensioned, imprisoned, unemployed, S. pneumoniae and other bacteria with mortality. Seasonality during September, January and March was observed. The results of the National Program for Control and Prevention of the Neurological Infectious Syndrome evidenced a reduction of the BM incidence, but not the CFR. Multivariate analysis identified an association of mortality with some societal groups as well as with S. pneumoniae.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 05/2010; 10(1):130. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-10-130 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    • "Nowadays, pneumococci are the most important cause of bacterial meningitis in children and adults in the US as well as in Europe. The incidence of the disease varies from 1.1 to 2 in the US [Schuchat et al. 1997; Wenger et al. 1990] and in Western Europe [Berg et al. 1996] up to 12 in 100 000 per year in Africa [O'Dempsey et al. 1996]. The risk of disease is highest in individuals younger than 5 years and older than 60 years. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency requiring immediate diagnosis and immediate treatment. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common and most aggressive pathogens of meningitis. Emerging antibiotic resistance is an upcoming challenge. Clinical and experimental studies have established a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms resulting in brain damage, sequelae and neuropsychological deficits. We summarize the current pathophysiological concept of acute bacterial meningitis and present current treatment strategies.
    Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders 11/2009; 2(6):1-7. DOI:10.1177/1756285609337975 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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