Article

The use of prophylactic furazolidone to control a nosocomial epidemic of multiply resistant Salmonella typhimurium in pediatric wards.

Division of Pediatrics, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 3.57). 09/1990; 9(8):551-5. DOI: 10.1097/00006454-199008000-00005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The nosocomial spread of enteric pathogens is often difficult to control in overcrowded pediatric wards. During 1983 and 1984, despite cohorting of patients and enforced hand washing, more than 200 cases of nosocomial multiply resistant Salmonella typhimurium phage type R-9 were observed on two adjacent pediatric wards. Most cases occurred during the summer months. After 19 new cases were detected early in the summer of 1985, oral administration of furazolidone throughout their entire hospital stay (2.5 mg/kg twice daily) was recommended for all subsequently hospitalized infants. Among the 114 (65%) infants who were appropriately treated, only one additional case (1%) was detected. In contrast 11 (19%) cases occurred among the 59 infants who were inappropriately treated: 5 of 35 (14%) of those who were not treated and 6 of 24 (25%) in whom treatment with furazolidone was delayed greater than 24 hours (P less than 0.001 between the appropriately and inappropriately treated groups). In pediatric wards where infection control measures cannot be optimally applied, prophylactic furazolidone administration may be helpful in preventing the spread of enteric pathogens.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
44 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims  The administration of omeprazole may interfere with the absorption of orally administered drugs by reducing gastric pH and hence tablet dissolution. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 5 day administration of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of furazolidone.Methods  Eighteen healthy (nine male and nine female) volunteers were selected. The study had an open randomized two-period crossover design with a 21 day washout period between the phases. Serum concentrations of furazolidone were measured by reversed-phase h.p.l.c. with ultraviolet detection.Results  Administration of omeprazole caused a significant reduction of Cmax[0.34 µg ml−1 (range 0.25–0.43) vs 0.24 µg ml−1 (range 0.15–0.34)] with no significant delay in absorption tmax[2.5 h (range 1.85–3.0) vs 2.4 h (range 2.06–2.71)].Conclusions  Furazolidone was rapidly absorbed after oral administration. Short-term treatment with omeprazole did alter the relative bioavailability of this drug, probably through an effect on absorption kinetics or first-pass metabolism.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 07/2001; 52(2):205 - 209. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The administration of omeprazole may interfere with the absorption of orally administered drugs by reducing gastric pH and hence tablet dissolution. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 5 day administration of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of furazolidone. Eighteen healthy (nine male and nine female) volunteers were selected. The study had an open randomized two-period crossover design with a 21 day washout period between the phases. Serum concentrations of furazolidone were measured by reversed-phase h.p.l.c. with ultraviolet detection. Administration of omeprazole caused a significant reduction of Cmax [0.34 microg x ml(-1) (range 0.25-0.43) vs 0.24 microg x ml(-1) (range 0.15-0.34)] with no significant delay in absorption tmax [2.5 h (range 1.85-3.0) vs 2.4 h (range 2.06-2.71)]. Furazolidone was rapidly absorbed after oral administration. Short-term treatment with omeprazole did alter the relative bioavailability of this drug, probably through an effect on absorption kinetics or first-pass metabolism.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 09/2001; 52(2):205-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance is common and clearly is increasing in frequency in clinically important enteropathogens. Antibiotic resistance often is associated with greater morbidity and mortality because it leads to delay in the initiation of adequate therapy. More prudent use of antibiotics, both for diarrheal disease and other infections, would decrease the frequency of these strains. At present, if a strain of Salmonella species, Shigella species, or diarrhea-associated E coli is multidrug-resistant, it is still likely to be susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins or ciprofloxacin.
    Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 01/1996;