Caco-2 cell monolayers as a model for drug transport across the intestinal mucosa.
ABSTRACT Human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, when grown on semipermeable filters, spontaneously differentiate in culture to form confluent monolayers which both structurally and functionally resemble the small intestinal epithelium. Because of this property they show promise as a simple, in vitro model for the study of drug absorption and metabolism during absorption in the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, the transport of several model solutes across Caco-2 cell monolayers grown in the Transwell diffusion cell system was examined. Maximum transport rates were found for the actively transported substance glucose and the lipophilic solutes testosterone and salicyclic acid. Slower rates were observed for urea, hippurate, and saliylate anions and were correlated with the apparent partition coefficient of the solute. These results are similar to what is found with the same compounds in other, in vivo absorption model systems. It is concluded that the Caco-2 cell system may give useful predictions concerning the oral absorption potential of new drug substances.
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ABSTRACT: Developing siRNA therapeutics poses technical challenges including appropriate molecular design and testing in suitable pre-clinical models. We previously detailed sequence-selection and modification strategies for siRNA candidates targeting STAT6. Here, we describe methodology that evaluates the suitability of candidate siRNA for respiratory administration. Chemically-modified siRNA exhibited similar inhibitory activity (IC50) against STAT6 in vitro compared to unmodified siRNA and apical exposure testing with Caco-2 cell monolayers showed modification was not associated with cellular toxicity. Use of a modified RNA extraction protocol improved the sensitivity of a PCR-based bio-analytical assay (lower limit of siRNA strand quantification = 0.01 pg/µl) which was used to demonstrate that lung distribution profiles for both siRNAs were similar following intra-tracheal administration. However, after 6 hours, modified siRNA was detected in lung tissue at concentrations >1000-fold higher than unmodified siRNA. Evaluation in a rat model of allergic inflammation confirmed the persistence of modified siRNA in vivo, which was detectable in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, BAL cells and lung tissue samples, 72 hours after dosing. Based upon the concept of respiratory allergy as a single airway disease, we considered nasal delivery as a route for respiratory targeting, evaluating an intra-nasal exposure model that involved simple dosing followed by fine dissection of the nasal cavity. Notably, endogenous STAT6 expression was invariant throughout the nasal cavities and modified siRNA persisted for at least 3 days after administration. Coupled with our previous findings showing upregulated expression of inflammatory markers in nasal samples from asthmatics, these findings support the potential of intranasal siRNA delivery. In summary, we demonstrate the successful chemical modification of STAT6 targeting siRNA, which enhanced bio-availability without cellular toxicity or reduced efficacy. We have established a robust, sensitive method for determining siRNA bio-distribution in vivo, and developed a nasal model to aid evaluation. Further work is warranted.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e90338. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A group of novel taxoids, with modifications at C-7, C-10, C-3' and C-14 positions of paclitaxel, was synthesized in order to improve their biological profile by decreasing their affinity with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and increasing cellular permeability. Most of the new taxoids demonstrated the similar potent cytotoxic activities in MCF-7 human tumor cell line as paclitaxel in vitro. In the permeability assay with monolayers of Caco-2 cells, most of the compounds demonstrated an increased trans-cellular transport in A-to-B direction in comparison with paclitaxel. Among them the compounds T-13, T-15 and T-26 showed the highest permeability, and with efflux ratios better than that of ortataxel. The interaction of the compounds T-13 and T-26 with P-gp was evaluated using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-multidrug resistance-1(MDR1) and MDCK-wild-type (WT). The results indicated that T-13 and T-26 were poor substrates for P-gp and possessed inhibiting effects of P-gp mediated efflux. It was thus clear that simultaneous modifications at the C-7, C-10 and C-3' positions of paclitaxel significantly impaired its interactions with P-gp and interfered with P-gp mediated efflux.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 11/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vitro intestinal models can provide new insights into small intestinal function, including cellular growth and proliferation mechanisms, drug absorption capabilities and host-microbial interactions. These models are typically formed with cells cultured on 2-D scaffolds or transwell inserts, but it is widely understood that epithelial cells cultured in 3-D environments exhibit different phenotypes that are more reflective of native tissue. Our focus was to develop a porous, synthetic 3-D tissue scaffold with villous features that could support the culture of epithelial cell types to mimic the natural microenvironment of the small intestine. We demonstrated that our scaffold could support the co-culture of Caco-2 cells with a mucus-producing cell line, HT29-MTX, as well as small intestinal crypts from mice for extended periods. By recreating the surface topography with accurately-sized intestinal villi, we enable cellular differentiation along the villous axis in a similar manner to native intestines. In addition, we show that the biochemical microenvironments of the intestine can be further simulated via a combination of apical and basolateral feeding of intestinal cell types cultured on the 3-D models. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 01/2014; · 3.65 Impact Factor