Caco-2 cell monolayers as a model for drug transport across the intestinal mucosa.
ABSTRACT Human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, when grown on semipermeable filters, spontaneously differentiate in culture to form confluent monolayers which both structurally and functionally resemble the small intestinal epithelium. Because of this property they show promise as a simple, in vitro model for the study of drug absorption and metabolism during absorption in the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, the transport of several model solutes across Caco-2 cell monolayers grown in the Transwell diffusion cell system was examined. Maximum transport rates were found for the actively transported substance glucose and the lipophilic solutes testosterone and salicyclic acid. Slower rates were observed for urea, hippurate, and saliylate anions and were correlated with the apparent partition coefficient of the solute. These results are similar to what is found with the same compounds in other, in vivo absorption model systems. It is concluded that the Caco-2 cell system may give useful predictions concerning the oral absorption potential of new drug substances.
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ABSTRACT: Total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (TFH) are extracted from the widely distributed thorny bush Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Isorhamnetin (IS) is one of the representative ingredients in TFH. In this study, the absorption properties of IS in TFH and its pure form were compared through transepithelial transport and cellular uptake experiments in a Caco-2 cell model. Our results show that the absorption properties of IS in TFH and its pure form were remarkably different: (1) Both PappAB and PappBA of IS in TFH were dramatically increased compared with those of IS pure form; consequently, its Pratio was 2.3-fold higher than that of IS; (2) Both the accumulation and efflux of IS in TFH were significantly enhanced compared with the single compound. One likely reason for these differences is that the multiple components in TFH significantly down regulated the mRNA expression level of MRP2, which lead to a decrease in the protein level of MRP2, based on western blotting and RT-PCR assays. This study highlights the significant differences in the absorption properties of flavonoid components in different forms and the potential multi-component interactions in TFH. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 03/2015; 73. DOI:10.1016/j.ejps.2015.03.008 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To date, the Caco-2 model is considered as the gold standard to predict intestinal drug absorption. Often, aqueous phosphate buffers are used as apical medium. The purpose of this study was to use fasted state human intestinal fluid (FaHIF) as apical solvent system to generate biorelevant permeability values for a series of 16 model drugs that can be used as reference data to critically evaluate fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) as possible substitute medium. Caco-2 compatibility with FaHIF was achieved when 50mg/ml mucus was applied on top of the cells before adding the apical medium. The use of FaHIF as solvent system generated a broad range of apparent permeability values (Papp) for the series of model compounds. When Papp values obtained with FaHIF were compared to those obtained with FaSSIF, a strong correlation was observed (R=0.951). The use of FaSSIF in the absence of mucus did not significantly alter this correlation. For FaHIF, FaSSIF and reference phosphate buffer blank FaSSIF, a strong sigmoidal relationship was found between Papp and fahuman, illustrated by correlation coefficients of 0.961, 0.893 and 0.868, respectively. In terms of inter-subject variability, the use of FaHIF from different volunteers originating from two distinct age groups (18-25years; 65-72years) exhibited an average coefficient of variance (CV) of 30%. However, no age dependency in permeability could be observed. In conclusion, the data generated in this article justify the use of FaSSIF as biorelevant apical medium in the Caco-2 assay to accurately predict in vivo drug absorption. Also, the optimized mucus-containing Caco-2 model can be used in combination with intestinal fluid samples aspirated after drug administration to further investigate intraluminal drug and formulation behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 01/2015; 67:126-35. DOI:10.1016/j.ejps.2014.11.010 · 3.01 Impact Factor