Blue light hazard in rat
ABSTRACT Rats have been extensively used in light damage studies. Retinal damage threshold for white light were found at 1-10 J/cm2, and the action spectrum resembled the absorption spectrum of visual pigment. We wished to answer the question whether a different class of light damage, the "blue light hazard", with white light damage thresholds at about 300 J/cm2, and an action spectrum peaking in the ultra-violet, could also be demonstrated in rat. To that purpose 5 deg patches of retina were exposed to white xenon light with exposure times between 10 sec and 1 hr. We found that for funduscopic threshold damage the product of irradiance and exposure time was constant at a level of 315 J/cm2. Thereafter, the action spectrum was measured by exposing rat eyes to narrow band spectral lights. Threshold irradiant dose ranged from 4 J/cm2 at 379 nm to 2000 J/cm2 at 559 nm. Thus, susceptibility for damage sharply increased towards the ultra-violet, just like in earlier monkey studies. We conclude that in similar experimental conditions susceptibility to photic injury in rat is comparable to that in primates. Rat is the first species for which two different action spectra of photochemical damage have been established.
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ABSTRACT: Fascinating new data, revealed through gene sequencing, comparative genomics, and genetic engineering, precisely establish which genes are involved in mate choice and mating activity--behaviors that are surprisingly understudied from a genetic perspective. Discussed here are some of the recently identified visual and chemosensory genes that are involved in mate choice and mating behavior. These genes' products are involved in the production, transmission, and receipt of crucial sensory mate-choice cues that affect fitness. This review exposes newfound evidence that alternative splicing, gene-expression pattern changes, and molecular genetic variation in sensory genes are crucial for both intra- and interspecific mate choice and mating success. Many sensory genes have arisen through gene duplications, and data amassed from studies conducted at scales ranging from individual genes to genomic comparisons show that strong, positive Darwinian selection acts on several mating-related genes and that these genes evolve rapidly.Genomics 09/2007; 90(2):159-75. DOI:10.1016/j.ygeno.2007.03.021 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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