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Parental occupation and other environmental factors in the etiology of leukemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in childhood: A case-control study

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Torino, Italy.
Tumori (Impact Factor: 1.09). 11/1990; 76(5):413-9.
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ABSTRACT We report the results of a hospital-based, case-control study on acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (AnLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in childhood. The study was conducted from 1981 to 1984 in Turin (Italy). One hundred and forty-two children with ALL, 22 with AnLL and 19 with NHL were included, as well as 307 controls. Information on parental smoking habits, parental occupation, ionizing radiation and childhood diseases were collected using a standard questionnaire during a personal interview of the relative attending the child in the hospital. The odds ratios for antenatal diagnostic radiation were 1.1 (NS) for ALL and 2.4 (NS) for AnLL. No association was found with diseases in childhood. Paternal and maternal smoking habits were similar for ALL cases and controls. Both maternal and paternal smoking were associated with NHL: for paternal smoking, odds ratios were around 5, but without a correlation with number of cigarettes. Positive associations observed with maternal employment were: ALL with teacher and cleaner; AnLL and textile worker; NHL and baker. Corresponding association with paternal jobs were: ALL with clerks, farmers and employment in office equipment production; AnLL and workers in building, tire or textile industries; NHL and lorry drivers, workers in the building or in the wood and furniture industry.

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    • "Epidemiologic data indicate that children of mothers who smoke during pregnancy have a greater risk of developing certain types of childhood cancers, including tumors of the nervous system, leukemias, and lymphomas (Filippini et al., 1994, 2000; Magnani et al., 1990; Schuz et al., 2001). It would be very difficult to use human data to establish a role for immunotoxicity in this increased risk. "
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    • "Fetuses exposed to tobacco smoke in utero are more likely to be born pre-term and underweight, both of which are associated with an increased risk of numerous pathologies including respiratory distress syndrome, cardiovascular defects, cleft lip and palate, immunodeficiency, and an increased risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (Andres and Day, 2000; Hackshaw et al., 2011; Higgins, 2002). In utero tobacco smoke exposure has also been linked to an increased risk of pediatric hematological malignancies (John et al., 1991; Magnani et al., 1990). Later in life, children who were exposed to tobacco smoke in utero have been shown to be at increased risk of developing attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, as well as other behavioral and psychological problems (Indredavik et al., 2007). "
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    • "Epidemiologic data indicate that children of mothers who smoke during pregnancy have a greater risk of developing certain types of childhood cancers, including tumors of the nervous system, leukemias, and lymphomas (Filippini et al., 1994, 2000; Magnani et al., 1990; Schuz et al., 2001). It would be very difficult to use human data to establish a role for immunotoxicity in this increased risk. "
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