Apoprotein E phenotypes. A study of the population of Málaga

Departamento de Medicina Interna, Facultad de Medicina, Campus Universitario de Teatinos, Málaga.
Revista Clínica Española (Impact Factor: 1.06). 07/1990; 187(1):3-5.
Source: PubMed


The distribution of apoprotein E phenotypes in a randomly chosen population sample of Málaga was compared to other published studies performed in other countries, observing minimal differences in Caucasian populations but significant differences with oriental ethnic groups. Cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels were not significantly different in the different apo E phenotypes. A high proportion of subjects (26%) with hydrocarbon metabolism abnormalities (diabetic and glucose intolerant) was observed in phenotype E4/3 and very low (4.7%) in phenotype E3/2. The study of plasma triglyceride levels which were higher in the diabetic group, revealed a greater increase in phenotype E4/3 than in E3/3. These results support the idea about the complex relationship that exists between apo E phenotypes and some cardiovascular risk factors.

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    ABSTRACT: The apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene is polymorphic with three common alleles (epsilon 2, epsilon 3, epsilon 4) whose allelic frequency and association with lipid levels varies from population to population. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between these genetic variants and the risk of hypercholesterolemia in a Mediterranean Spanish population. A case-control study in a working population from Valencia was carried out. A total of 330 cases (148 men and 182 women) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol > 200 mg/dl or with lipid lowering treatment) and age range 20 to 60 years, were identified. 330 normocholesterolemic controls matched by age and sex were selected. From all of them data of apoE genotype, body mass index, lipid and lipoprotein levels, socioeconomic and life-style variables were obtained. The epsilon 2 allele frequency was statistically lower in cases (0.033) than in controls (0.086). The epsilon 4 allele frequency was higher in cases (0.115) than in controls (0.039). In the crude logistic regression analysis, the apoE polymorphism was related (p < 0.001) to the risk of hypercholesterolemia. After adjustment by age, body mass index, educational level, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity the epsilon 2 allele was associated with a lower risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20-0.64), and the epsilon 4 allele was associated with a higher risk (OR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.82-5.06). The apoE genotype was significantly related to the risk of moderate hypercholesterolemia in the Mediterranean Spanish population.
    Medicina Clínica 07/2000; 115(5):170-5. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E (Apo E) plays an important role in atherogenesis. Apo E is polymorphic with three codominant alleles: *2, *3 and *4. Inthis study we evaluated the association between *4 allele and coronary heart disease in hypercholesterolemic subjects from Spain. We selected 389 subjects (56% women, mean age 57 years) with hypercholesterolemia who had been on a 6-weeks low fat, low cholesterol diet. Measurement of lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and determination of apoE genotype were carried out in a centralized laboratory. ApoE distribution was as follows: *2/*33%, *3/*3 75%, *3/*4 20%, *4/*4 1% and *2/*41%. Subjects were grouped into *4 (n = 83) or no *4 (n = 303) according to the presence or absence of the *4 allele. Three *2/*4 cases were excluded. Prevalence of coronary artery disease was 15.7% in *4 and 6.9% in no *4 (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.19-5.22). The relationship persisted significant after correction for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides by multiple logistic regression analysis (OR2.56, 95% CI 1.03-6.39).Conclusión:In Spain, *4 carriers have a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease than no analysis *4 carriers.
    Medicina Clínica 06/2001; 116(18):681-5. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Association of apolipoprotein E (apo E) polymorphism with atherosclerosis variesamong populations. Our aim was to estimate the association of common apo E variants (ε2, ε3and ε4 alleles) with plasma lipid concentrations and cardiovascular disease (CAD) risk in aSpanish Mediterranean population. Patients and method This was a cross-sectional study in 486 subjects (144 men and 342 women)from a general Mediterranean population (7-85 years). Apo E genotypes, anthropometric,biochemical and life-style variables were determined. Results Frequency of ε2 and ε4 alleles was low (0.052; 95% CI, 0.038-0.066, and 0.063;95% CI, 0.048-0.078, respectively). Apo E polymorphism was associated (p = 0.016) withLDL-C concentrations (119.9; 138.1 and 146.6 mg/dl in carriers of the ε2, ε3/ε3, and ε4 alleles,respectively). These differences remained significant (p = 0.017) after adjustment for gender,age and life-style factors. Subjects carrying the ε2 allele had higher triglyceride concentrationsthan non-carriers (p = 0.019). Prevalence of CAD was 14.0% in ε4 carriers, 6.9% in ε2carriers and 3.4% in ε3/ε3 homozygotes. The higher risk of CAD associated with the ε4 alleleremained significant (OR = 5.88; 95% CI, 1.64-21.02) after adjustment for gender, age andlife-style factors. Conclusions In the Spanish Mediterranean population, ε4 allele was associated with higherLDL-C concentrations and with a higher risk of CAD.
    Medicina Clínica 12/2002; 118(15):569–574. DOI:10.1016/S0025-7753(02)72454-8 · 1.42 Impact Factor