Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization. Normal values and effect of age.
ABSTRACT Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction ratio (OER), oxygen utilization (CMRO2) and blood volume (CBV) were measured in a group of 34 healthy volunteers (age range 22-82 yrs) using the 15O steady-state inhalation method and positron emission tomography. Between subjects CBF correlated positively with CMRO2, although the interindividual variability of the measured values was large. OER was not dependent on CMRO2, but highly negatively correlated with CBF. CBV correlated positively with CBF. When considering the values of all the regions of interest within a single subject, a strict coupling between CMRO2 and CBF, and between CBF and CBV was found, while OER was constant and independent of CBF and CMRO2. In 'pure' grey and white matter regions CMRO2, CBF and CBV decreased with age approximately 0.50% per year. In other regions the decline was less evident, most likely due to partial volume effects. OER did not change or showed a slight increase with age (maximum in the grey matter region 0.35%/yr). The results suggest diminished neuronal firing or decreased dendritic synaptic density with age.
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ABSTRACT: Kinetic analysis is a tool used to glean additional information from positron emission tomography (PET) data by exploiting the dynamics of tissue metabolism. The standard irreversible and reversible two compartment models used in kinetic analysis were initially developed to analyse brain PET data. The application of kinetic analysis to PET of the liver presents the opportunity to move beyond the generic standard models and develop physiologically informed pharmacokinetic models that incorporate structural and functional features in particular to the liver. In this paper, we develop a new compartment model, called the tubes model, which is informed by the liver׳s sinusoidal architecture, high fractional blood volume, high perfusion rate, and large hepatocyte surface area facing the space of Disse. The tubes model distributes tracer between the blood and intracellular compartments in more physiologically faithful proportions than the standard model, producing parametric images with improved contrast between healthy and neoplastic tissue.Journal of Theoretical Biology 11/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSEQuantitative signal targeting with alternating radiofrequency labeling of arterial regions (QUASAR) is a recent spin labeling technique that could improve the reliability of brain perfusion measurements. Although it is considered reliable for measuring gray matter as a whole, it has never been evaluated regionally. Here we assessed this regional reliability. METHODS Using a 3-Tesla Philips Achieva whole-body system, we scanned four times 10 healthy volunteers, in two sessions 2 weeks apart, to obtain QUASAR images. We computed perfusion images and ran a voxel-based analysis within all brain structures. We also calculated mean regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within regions of interest configured for each arterial territory distribution. RESULTSThe mean CBF over whole gray matter was 37.74 with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of .70. In white matter, it was 13.94 with an ICC of .30. Voxel-wise ICC and coefficient-of-variation maps showed relatively lower reliability in watershed areas and white matter especially in deeper white matter. The absolute mean rCBF values were consistent with the ones reported from PET, as was the relatively low variability in different feeding arteries. CONCLUSION Thus, QUASAR reliability for regional perfusion is high within gray matter, but uncertain within white matter.Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 02/2014; · 1.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent technical developments have significantly increased the SNR of arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI. Despite this, typical ASL acquisitions still employ large voxel sizes. The purpose of this work was to implement and evaluate two ASL sequences optimized for whole-brain high-resolution perfusion imaging, combining pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL), background suppression (BS) and 3D segmented readouts, with different in-plane k-space trajectories. Identical labeling and BS pulses were implemented for both sequences. Two segmented 3D readout schemes with different in-plane trajectories were compared: Cartesian (3D GRASE), and spiral (3D RARE Stack-Of-Spirals). High-resolution perfusion images (2x2x4 mm3) were acquired in fifteen young healthy volunteers with the two ASL sequences at 3T. The quality of the perfusion maps was evaluated in terms of SNR and gray-to-white matter contrast. Point-spreadfunction simulations were carried out to assess the impact of readout differences on the effective resolution. The combination of pCASL, in-plane segmented 3D readouts and BS provided high-SNR high-resolution ASL perfusion images of the whole brain. Although both sequences produced excellent image quality, the 3D RARE Stack-Of-Spirals readout yielded higher temporal and spatial SNR than 3D GRASE (Spatial SNR = 8.5 ± 2.8 and 3.7 ± 1.4; Temporal SNR = 27.4 ± 12.5 and 15.6 ± 7.6, respectively) and decreased through-plane blurring due to its inherent oversampling of the central k-space region, its reduced effective TE and shorter total readout time, at the expense of a slight increase in the effective in-plane voxel size.NMR in Biomedicine 12/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor