Kinematic and kinetic analysis of push-up exercise.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to experimentally measure and analytically determine the load across the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints during push-ups to better understand the nature of this exercise. A piezoelectric force platform was used to measure the vertical and two shear forces as well as the moment and the location of the center of pressure on the hand during a push-up. The electromagnetic tracking system was utilized to associate the force and moment measurement on the hand to the joints of the upper limbs. Factors which affect the intersegmental loads on the joints during push-ups include the location of the palm relative to the shoulder joint, the plane of arm movement, and the relative foot positions. In addition, the speed of push-ups also affects the amount of inertial load on top of the base static load.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effects of seated thoracic manipulation on scapulothoracic kinematics and scapulohumeral rhythm during arm flexion in young asymptomatic participants. A convenience sample of 42 young asymptomatic participants was randomly divided in 2 groups: manipulation and sham group. Measurements were taken before and after the intervention. All participants completed the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire to assess pain and physical function. The manipulation group received the manipulation (high velocity, low amplitude), which was performed by a physical therapist with the patient in the seated position and with the arms crossed over the chest and hands passed over the shoulders. For the sham group, the same procedure was performed, with the exception that the high-velocity thrust was not applied. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematic data were collected with the participants in a relaxed standing position using a 3D electromagnetic tracking system. All participants performed 3 repetitions of arm flexion before and after manipulation. There were no differences (P = .79) in Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores when the manipulation (3.37 ± 3.72) was compared with the sham group (3.68 ± 4.27). The 3-way analysis of variance showed no significant interaction among group, angle, and time differences for the outcomes (scapulothoracic internal/external rotation [F = 0.43; P = .82], upward/downward rotation [F = 0.08; P = .99], tilt [F = 0.23; P = .94], and scapulohumeral rhythm [F = 4; P = .86]). The intragroup effect was small for the outcomes measured in both groups. Thoracic manipulation in the seated position did not affect scapulohumeral rhythm and 3D scapular kinematics during arm flexion in young asymptomatic participants.Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 09/2013; · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Study Design Clinical measurement. Objective To establish trial to trial within-day and between-day reliability, standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimum detectable change (MDC) of scapular orientations during elevation and lowering of the arm and with the arm relaxed at the side in subjects with and without shoulder impingement. Background Electromagnetic devices are commonly used to measure 3-D scapular kinematics during arm elevation in different conditions and for intervention studies. However, there is lack of studies that evaluate within and between-day reliability of these measurements. Methods Subjects were divided in 2 groups: control and impingement. Kinematic data were collected using Flock of Birds® electromagnetic device during elevation and lowering of the arm in the sagittal plane on 2 different occasions separated by 3 to 5 days. Forty-nine subjects were tested for within-day reliability. Forty-three subjects were reassessed for between-day reliability. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for within- and between-day assessment of scapular orientation during elevation and lowering of the arm in both groups ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 and 0.54 to 0.88 respectively. ICCs for assessment of scapular orientation with the arms relaxed at the side in both groups ranged from 0.66 to 0.95. Standard Error of Measurements (SEMs) for between-day measurements ranged from 3.37° to 7.44° for both groups. The minimum detectable chance (MDC90) for between-day measurements increased from 7.81° at the lower to 17.27° at the higher humerothoracic elevation angles. Conclusion These results support the use of Flock of Birds® to measure scapular orientations with excellent within-day reliability, but the measurements are not highly reliable over time in subjects with and without impingement symptoms. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 27 March 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.4705.The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy. 03/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Study Design Randomized controlled trial with immediate follow-up. Objective To evaluate the immediate effects of a low-amplitude high-velocity (thrust) thoracic spine manipulation (TSM) on pain and scapular kinematics during elevation and lowering of the arm in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). The secondary objective was to evaluate the immediate effects of TSM on scapular kinematics during elevation and lowering of the arm in individuals without symptoms. Background Considering the regional interdependence among shoulder, thoracic, and cervical spine, TSM may be effective to improving pain and function in individuals with SIS. Comparison with individuals without shoulder pathology would provide information on the effects being specific to those with SIS. Methods Fifty subjects (mean ± SD: 31.8 ± 10.9 years old) with SIS and 47 subjects (25.8 ± 5.0 years old) asymptomatic for shoulder dysfunction were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 interventions: manipulation or sham. Scapular kinematics was analyzed during elevation and lowering of the arm in the sagittal plane and a numeric pain rating scale was used to assess shoulder pain during arm movement at pre- and post-intervention. Results For those in the SIS group, shoulder pain was reduced immediately after TSM and sham intervention (mean ± SD, 2.9 ± 2.5 pre-intervention; 2.3 ± 2.5 post-intervention; P<.01; moderate effect size; d-Cohen=0.2). Scapular internal rotation increased 0.5 ± 0.02 degrees (P=.04; small effect size; d-Cohen<0.1) during elevation of the arm after TSM and sham intervention in the SIS group only. Subjects with and without SIS who received TSM and asymptomatic subjects who received sham intervention had a significant increase (1.6 ± 2.7 degrees) in scapular upward rotation post-intervention (P<.05; small size effect; d-Cohen<0.2) which was not considered clinically significant. Scapular anterior tilt increased (1.0 ± 4.8 degrees) during elevation and lowering of the arm post-manipulation (P<0.05; small effect size; d-Cohen<0.2) in the asymptomatic subjects who received TSM. Conclusion Shoulder pain in individuals with SIS immediately decreased after a TSM. The observed changes in scapular kinematics following TSM were not considered clinically important. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 22 May 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.4760.Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 05/2014; · 2.95 Impact Factor