Disappearance of grating induction at scotopic luminances.
ABSTRACT The dependence of grating induction magnitude on retinal illuminance was examined in two subjects. Grating induction magnitude, as determined using the cancellation technique of McCourt, declines monotonically with decreasing retinal illuminance, effectively disappearing at a value of 0.3-0.5 phot td. In a second experiment, sensitivity differences for test lights of 500 and 600 nm were measured as a function of background illuminance in order to gauge the luminance operating range for grating induction with respect to duplex photoreceptor function. Cancelling contrast (and hence grating induction magnitude) fell below detection threshold contrast at retinal illuminances coinciding with the transition from photopic to scotopic visual function. In a third experiment, spatial contrast sensitivity was measured using both spatially extended (10 degrees) and truncated (2 degrees) sinewave gratings at frequencies below 2 c/deg, at three values of retinal illuminance. Illuminance values corresponded to those where grating induction magnitude was, as determined from the first experiment, either maximal, intermediate or negligible. Similar to grating induction, the strength of lateral inhibition, as indexed by the slope of the low-frequency decline in contrast sensitivity, is progressively reduced with decreasing retinal illuminance, particularly for the 2 degree field. There was, however, using the same criteria, evidence of lateral inhibition at a value of retinal illuminance which did not support grating induction. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to classical brightness contrast phenomena, recent neuroanatomical and neurophysiological evidence of segregated parvo- and magnocellular mediated contrast processing systems, and with results from previous studies of the grating induction effect.
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ABSTRACT: A horizontal grey bar that drifts horizontally across a surround of black and white vertical stripes appears to stop and start as it crosses each stripe. A dark bar appears to slow down on a black stripe, where its edges have low contrast, and to accelerate on a white stripe, where its edges have high contrast. A light grey bar appears to slow down on a white stripe and to accelerate on a black stripe. If the background luminances at the leading and trailing edges of the moving bar are the same, the bar appears to change speed, and if they are different the bar appears to change in length. A plaid surround can induce 2-D illusions that modulate the apparent direction, not just the speed, of moving squares. Thus, the motion salience of a moving edge depends critically on its instantaneous contrast against the background.Perception 01/2001; 30:785-94. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The visibility of stationary visual phantoms and the grating induction (GI) effect were concurrently analyzed with both black and gray inspection areas (IA) using the same subjects with counterbalanced orders of measurements. Oblique inducing gratings were employed in order to compare the visibility of obliquely aligned and vertically misaligned appearances between the two phenomena. Aligned and misaligned phantom responses with a black IA were similar, whereas overall phantom visibility was severely suppressed when the IA was gray. In contrast, misaligned GI dominated with a gray IA, whereas aligned and misaligned GI responses were similar with a black IA. Phantoms appear to be related to visual mechanisms' selectively utilizing relative luminance information between the inducing grating and IA in a manner consistent with more global figural characteristics of the display (e.g., modal and amodal completion). On the other hand, GI may be predominantly due to locally operating brightness/contrast mechanisms.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 07/2001; 8(2):278-83. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We studied the changes and invariances of foveal motion detection upon dark adaptation. It is well-documented that dark adaptation affects both spatial and temporal aspects of visual processing. The question we were interested in is how this alters motion coherence detection for moving random texture. To compare motion sensitivity at different adaptation levels, we adjusted the viewing distance for equal detectability of a stationary pattern. At these viewing distances we then measured velocity tuning curves for moving random pixel arrays (RPAs). Mean luminance levels ranged from 50 down to 0.005 cd m-2. Our main conclusion is that foveal velocity tuning is amazingly close to luminance-invariant, down to a level of 0.05 cd m-2. Because different viewing distances, and hence, retinal image sizes were used, we performed two control experiments to assess variations of these two parameters separately. We examined the effects of retinal inhomogeneities using discs of different size and annuli filled with RPAs. Our conclusion is that the central visual field, including the near periphery is still rather homogeneous for motion detection at 0.05 cd m-2, but the fovea becomes unresponsive at the lowest luminance level. Variations in viewing distance had marked effects on velocity tuning, both at the light adapted level and the 0.05 cd m-2 level. The size and type of these changes indicated the effectiveness of distance scaling, and show that deviations from perfect invariance of motion coherence detection were not due to inaccurate distance scaling.Vision Research 02/2000; 40(26):3599-611. · 2.14 Impact Factor