Retinal vasculitis in rheumatoid arthritis: an angiographic study.
ABSTRACT The authors studied sixty patients affected by classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis (RA), to evaluate the possible existence of retinal vasculitis, by employing fluorescein angiography. Retinal vasculitis was found in 18% of the examined patients, even if no clinical and ophthalmoscopic signs of retinal vessel inflammation were present. The authors suggest that the retina should be examined in RA patients, since retinal vasculitis may be asymptomatic at the beginning, but can represent one of the possible extra-articular manifestations of the disease.
Article: Ocular toxicity due to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine: electrophysiological and visual function correlates.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxycholorquine (HCQ) have been used widely for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other similar inflammatory diseases since the early 50s. They remain the treatment of choice for many patients even today. Significant, either reversible or irreversible central visual loss associated with the drugs is very rare, but an important side effect that can warrant discontinuation of therapy. Early diagnosis of toxicity and evaluation of the visual function are, therefore, important parts of the treatment process. Various electrophysiological and psychophysical tests have been and are used for the detection, follow-up and prognosis of drug-associated central visual loss. A summary and comment on the tests, with emphasis on the use of more recently developed methods, such as the multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), are presented in this review.Documenta Ophthalmologica 02/2005; 110(1):111-20. · 2.11 Impact Factor