Physical training and copper, iron, and zinc status of swimmers

US Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, ND 58202.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 07/1990; 51(6):1093-9.
Source: PubMed


The influence of physical training on copper, iron, and zinc nutriture was studied before and at the end of a competitive season in 16 female and 13 male swimmers and in 13 female and 15 nontraining control subjects. Mean daily energy, protein, and carbohydrate intakes increased (p less than 0.05) in the swimmers. Estimated copper, iron, and zinc intakes increased (p less than 0.05) in the male swimmers. Hematocrit and hemoglobin did not change but ferritin increased (p less than 0.05) in male swimmers. Plasma copper, iron and zinc were within the ranges of normal values and did not change. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased (p less than 0.01) after training. The findings indicate that copper, iron, and zinc nutriture is not adversely affected by physical training when dietary intakes are adequate, and that increases in red blood cell SOD activity without an increase in dietary copper are a functional adaptation of copper metabolism to aerobic training.

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    • "Acute exercise was also shown to induce a decrease in plasma copper (Bordin et al., 1993). At the same time, the examination o f swimmers has indicated that physical training does not affect plasma copper concentration when dietary intakes are adequate (Lukaski et al., 1990). Oppositely, a n excellent study by Rodriguez Tuya et al. (1996) has shown an increase in plasma copper levels i n professional sportsmen (Rodriguez Tuya et al., 1996). "
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    ABSTRACT: The primary objective of the current investigation is to estimate the effect of different levels of physical activity on blood trace elements and vitamins concentration. A total of 97 students (55 male and 42 female) of P.G. Demidov Yaroslavl State University (Yaroslavl, Russia) took part in the current investigation. All the examinees gave their informed consent prior to the inclusion into the study. The female and male students were divided into the respective high, medium and low physical activity groups. Whole blood essential trace elements were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using NexION 300D+NWR213 spectrometer. Quantitative estimation of water-and lipid-soluble vitamins was held using high-performance liquid chromatography at PerkinElmer S200. The results obtained indicate that blood trace elements’ levels do not change in response to physical activity in females. At the same time, blood copper, iron, magnesium and selenium concentrations in males are decreased along with elevated physical activity. Increased physical activity in females is associated with a non-significant decrease in blood ascorbic acid level, whereas a significant decrease in blood retinol concentrations was observed in males. It is notable that the maximal gender differences in blood vitamin and trace element values were observed in the high physical activity groups. The results indicate gender difference in trace element and vitamin balance in response to different levels of physical activity. The obtained data underline the necessity of trace element and vitamin homeostasis monitoring before mineral and vitamin supplementation.
    Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 09/2015; 14(10):721-726. DOI:10.3923/pjn.2015.721.726
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    • "Mougios, Tsalis, y NIkolaidis (2004), en su estudio, no observaron reducciones significativas en los niveles de hierro de un grupo de jóvenes nadadores sometidos a un programa de entrenamiento de 6 meses. Por otro lado, Lukaski et al. (1990), en un estudio llevado a cabo con jóvenes nadadores y nadadoras, concluyeron que el entrenamiento de natación intensivo per se, no provoca descensos en los niveles de hierro, cobre y cinc, siempre y cuando las ingestas de estos micronutrientes sean las adecuadas. Los hallazgos del estudio llevado a cabo por Kabasakalis et al. (2007), también indicaron que no se producía ninguna alteración en las reservas de hierro de nadadores adultos como consecuencia del entrenamiento. "
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    • "However, the degree of change appears to be limited by the slow rate of erythrocyte turnover . Intense physical exercise also may elevate the amount of SOD protein in erythrocytes (Lukaski et al. 1990). Milne (1994) favours the use of CCO activity in platelets and leucocytes as a marker, since these cells have short lifetimes and may better reflect the metabolically-active pool of endogenous Cu. "
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    ABSTRACT: Defining optimal dietary intakes of Cu and Zn throughout the life cycle continues to present a considerable challenge for nutrition scientists. Although the daily intake of these micronutrients is below that currently recommended for many groups, traditional biochemical indicators of nutritional status for these trace metals largely remain within the normal range. Thus, it is unclear whether the recommended daily intakes may be unnecessarily high, or if the commonly-used markers simply lack the necessary sensitivity and specificity that are required for accurately assessing Cu and Zn status. The increasing number of reports that daily supplements with these trace metals enhance the activities of selective metalloenzymes and specific cellular and organ processes further points out the need to differentiate between meeting the requirement and providing optimal nutriture. Results from recent studies suggesting that alternative molecular and functional markers possess sufficient sensitivity to better assess Cu and Zn status are discussed. Likewise, recent studies evaluating the impact of very low and excessive levels of dietary Mn and Mo on selective biochemical and metabolic indicators are reviewed.
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