Physical activity and cardiovascular risk: a cross-sectional study of middle-aged premenopausal women.
ABSTRACT The relationship between self-reported physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors was evaluated in a population-based sample. The sample included 541 premenopausal women recruited for a study of the natural history of risk factor change associated with change in sex hormone status. Physical activity was assessed using the Paffenbarger Activity Questionnaire. Women were classified according to quartile of weekly energy expenditure into groups of 0-500, 501-999, 1,000-1,999, and 2,000 kcal or greater. Results showed that the more active the women, the lower their blood pressure and heart rate. More active women had lower cholesterol and triglycerides, and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Tricep and suprailiac skinfolds, fasting insulin, and insulin/glucose levels were also lower among the more active women. When the analysis was repeated controlling for the effect of education and body mass index, the statistical test for linear trend remained significant except for the trend for heart rate, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Women reporting activity of 1,000 kcal/week had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, skinfolds, fasting insulin, and fasting insulin/glucose ratios compared with women reporting lower levels of activity. Only those women who reported 2,000 kcal/week had significantly lower total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and higher HDL2 cholesterol; women reporting less activity did not differ with regard to these lipids and lipoproteins. The study suggests that physical activity is associated with improved cardiovascular risk profiles among middle-aged women and that the beneficial effects of activity are seen at different levels for specific risk factors.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Lowered physical activity (PA) levels may partially explain metabolic risk factor changes in women after menopause. Objectives: To evaluate the association between PA and metabolic risk factors at baseline and after 11 years, as well as the change in that association over time in women, premenopausal and > 40 years at baseline. Methods: Subjects in a Norwegian population-based health survey answered questionnaires and had body and serum measurements during 1995-1997 (HUNT 2) and in a follow-up study 2006-2008 (HUNT 3). Repeated measures analyses were used to estimate the association between PA and metabolic factors, adjusting for age, smoking status, education, alcohol intake, and parity. Hormonal treatment and medication was adjusted for, as appropriate. Results: In women remaining premenopausal, higher PA score in HUNT 3 was associated with lower weight (p < 0.01) and waist-hip ratio (p < 0.01) and higher HDL in HUNT 3 (p < 0.01). In women that were postmenopausal by the time of follow-up, higher PA score in HUNT 3 was associated with lower weight (p < 0.01), waist-hip ratio (p < 0.01), triglycerides (p < 0.01), and higher total cholesterol (p < 0.05), HDL (p < 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) in HUNT 3. The association of total PA score with weight and waist-hip ratio was stronger in HUNT 3 than in HUNT 2 (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Increased PA may reduce the risk of adverse outcomes and use of pharmacological management in women of menopausal age.Climacteric 01/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor