The relationship between self-reported physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors was evaluated in a population-based sample. The sample included 541 premenopausal women recruited for a study of the natural history of risk factor change associated with change in sex hormone status. Physical activity was assessed using the Paffenbarger Activity Questionnaire. Women were classified according to quartile of weekly energy expenditure into groups of 0-500, 501-999, 1,000-1,999, and 2,000 kcal or greater. Results showed that the more active the women, the lower their blood pressure and heart rate. More active women had lower cholesterol and triglycerides, and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Tricep and suprailiac skinfolds, fasting insulin, and insulin/glucose levels were also lower among the more active women. When the analysis was repeated controlling for the effect of education and body mass index, the statistical test for linear trend remained significant except for the trend for heart rate, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Women reporting activity of 1,000 kcal/week had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, skinfolds, fasting insulin, and fasting insulin/glucose ratios compared with women reporting lower levels of activity. Only those women who reported 2,000 kcal/week had significantly lower total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and higher HDL2 cholesterol; women reporting less activity did not differ with regard to these lipids and lipoproteins. The study suggests that physical activity is associated with improved cardiovascular risk profiles among middle-aged women and that the beneficial effects of activity are seen at different levels for specific risk factors.
"BMI and PA are inextricably linked. Our results support numerous studies that found an inverse association between PA and obesity [20-22]. It is known that health-risk behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and inadequate levels of PA tend to cluster together , as we indeed observed in the present study. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information on correlates of total physical activity (PA) levels among middle-aged and elderly women is limited. This article aims to investigate whether total daily PA levels are associated with age, body mass index, smoking, drinking status, and sociodemographic factors.
In a cross-sectional study of 38,988 women between the ages of 48 and 83 years residing in central Sweden, information on PA, weight, height, smoking, drinking, and sociodemographic factors was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Total daily PA levels were measured as metabolic equivalents (MET-h/day). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by ordinal logistic regression models.
We observed decreasing level of total PA with increasing age (for 5-year increase: OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.85–0.89) and body mass index (for 5-unit, kg/m2, increase: OR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.79–0.84). Multivariable adjusted correlates of total PA level were smoking (current vs. never: OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.79–0.88), drinking (current vs. never: OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82–0.94), educational level (university vs. primary: OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.51–0.58), employment status (housewife vs. full-work: OR = 2.59; 95% CI: 2.25–2.98), and childhood environment (city vs. countryside: OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.59–0.65).
In the present investigation, among middle-aged and elderly women, the likelihood of engaging in higher total daily PA levels decreased with age, body mass index, educational level, smoking, drinking, and growing up in urban places.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 02/2007; 4(1):16. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-4-16 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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